Lecture # 9
March 11, 2014
I. Democratic Transitions
II. Democracy with Adjectives
▯1980’s ended state shifted to neoliberal model and went with electoral democracy
▯ ual transition (political and economical liberalization at the same time)
▯ o smooth transition
▯ uillermo O’Donnell “delegative democracy“ concentration of power in the executive
▯ s democracy eroding or is morphing into a new type of democracy?
▯ Isbester “ The world is very democratic, 64 has some form of electoral democracy”
▯ Transitoligists”: individuals that specialize in democratic transition;
I. Democratic Transitions
▯ 1960’s1970’s breakdown of democracy and demise of dictatorship
▯ hird wave of democracy in the widespread transition from authoritarian to democratic
government has taken place in the global south since the mid1970s
▯ cuador first country to do this, gave the vote to women.
▯ irst Wave of democracy (18281926) post independence era with liberal and conservative
▯ econd Wave: 19431962 (ISI period, populism)
Causes of Third Wave
1) Democratic modes: International Pressure, Human rights groups, NGOS, end of cold
war, collapse of USSR, contagion effect
2) Economic Crisis: began in 1982 in Mexico, devastated Latin America, it revealed
how ineffective military was at running a country; Mexico could not make it’s
payment to loans, 1982 Latin Americas Foreign debt was at $327 billion dollars.
Comparison to 1970 when it was just at $29 Billion. The most in debt countries
(Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, and Argentina) Together there debt represented 74% of
the global south debt. Banks threw money at these countries at low interest rates to
gain more in return, but when the recession hit they were unable to return it. All
authoritarian regimes were undermined because of economic crisis
3) Popular Protest: reawakening of civil society, business groups, media, women’s
groups, students, unions, and other social groups. An example of this is Argentina’s
Mothers of Plaza de Mayo (resistance efforts in Argentina) Mothers would march
around silently to ask where there sons? They were not repressed because they were
mothers and not political, but was one way to rally another pressure point against the
Pathway to Democracy
1) Pacted Democracies Negotiation democracy as a result of a political bargain/pact between military civilian
forces” (Colombia: civilian and elites) Military negotiates its leaving, but this may have an effect on its
democracy. Political game between hardliners and softliners.
Example: Military vs. Citizens
Hardliners: stay in power Hardliners: over throw military overhaul the political and
Softliners: No legitimacy in government, Softliners: Negotiate a return to democracy with the
Negotiate a withdrawal from power.
If suddenly you have more power by social protestors, it’s a delicate game. It undermines the process, make the
hardliners more powerful and clamp down to authoritarian.
A great example of a CONTROLLED democracy is Chile .
Chile’s transition to democracy (Pinochet 19731990) ▯1983 when a more moderate group of politicians
approached the potential softliners with a proposal of Pinochet stepping down, they would make some
modifications, initiating to democracy.
▯ ejected, but opted for a dialogue with civilian leaders. 1981 constitution made sure the neoliberalism was
enshrined in that communication, amnesty for the military.
▯Key moment came in Patriticio Aylain , became the first democratically elected , leave the economic model in
place, the constitution model would not be touched and the military would not leave.
▯ ill this day they have made modifications, but have not changed it.
▯ hey never prosecuted, limited the civilian governments, lots of repression in protest! (PAPER)
Advantages of Pact
▯Return to democracy without bloodshed/repression
▯Political stability /Economic stability (no interruption)
Disadvantages of Pact
▯ o accountability for past crimes, difficult to hold military rulers to account
▯Morality, ethics, and citizens had to pay back for all the debt.
▯ nly marginal socioeconomic changes are possible.
▯ osters disappointment in democracy. (Look at Chile’s transition to democracy)
▯ hreat of the military hangs over
2) Ruptured democracy as a result of the total collapse of a military regime due to defeat in war or popular
▯No worries of hardliners, loss of legitimacy from military, actually go after the military and go after them.
Argentina (war) and Bolivia (massive uprising of citizens)
▯19761981 Argentina, Raphael Adel (30,000 people missing or murdered, 5 generals convicted, the new
president comes in and pardons them.
▯ rgentina was able to go democracy through protest, and war, agai