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Lecture 3

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Political Science
R Rice

Revolutionary Struggle I CubaNicaraguaRevolution define A social revolution is the successful overthrown of a ruling elite by revolutionaries who seek the profound transformation of a societys political economic and social structures Coup d estat power is transferred either within the ruling elite or from one ruling elite to another but the state economic and social structures remain the same Eg military intervention it is different from revolutionRebellion spontaneous uprising aimed at changing the leaders policies or institutions of the state but rarely affect social structures and values Eg anti neoliberal protests it is not consider as a revolutionA political revolution seeks to transform the state but not economic or social structure Eg war of independence First generation revolutions characterized by the tensions surrounding the transition from feudalism to capitalism and by class struggle Eg France Russia and China and Mexico are first generation revolution Revolution Theoretical ModelClass Conflict Model Karl Marx views revolutions as movements driven by inherent class based conflicts in society Features urban workers are the revolutionary class They exploit nature of capitalism gives rise to political violence Political Conflict Model Charles Tilly views revolutions as the struggle for political power between those who are excluded from the polity Challengers and those who are in power Members of the polity Structural model of Theda Skocpol views revolution as the result of the weakening or collapse of state structure as a result of international and domestic pressures Skocopol compare France Russia and China vs Japan and Germany Features of structural model state crisis caused revolution Extreme pressure on the state is required Specific agrarian structure is required Peasant small holders State repressive capacity breaks down Forans model of Third World Revolution Dependent developmentrepressive personalistic stateculture of resistanceeconomic crisisfavorable international condition
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