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Lecture 9

Lecture 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
R Rice

POLC99 Lecture 9 March 8 The Politics of the Rural Dispossessed: Ecuador + Bolivia The Indigenous Question: The debate over the special political and socio- economic rights that should be granted to indigenous peoples citizens of nation- states Examples: - Reserved seats in legislation - Bilingual education - Development assistance - Special autonomy of self-determination for indigenous communities Explanations for the Rise of Indigenous Movements - International human rights, norms and legislations - ILO Convention 169 indigenous + tribal peoples - UN Declaration on Indigenous Rights (2007) - Neoliberalism: political and economic exclusion - Democratization - Social capital: unions are on the decrease; indigenous people have a great reserve of social capital to mobilize people. The Electoral Path to Change Autonomy in participation: a combination of protest and electoral politics as a means of advancing a groups agenda. Option 1: Rejection of Electoral Politics Examples: Guatemala and Mexico. In 1999 they had a referendum in Guatemala to include indigenous rights into the constitution. Option 2: Join an Existing Party Examples: Argentina and Brazil. Not very happy with the workers party in Brazil. Option 3: Form Your Own Party Examples: Ecuador and Bolivia. Combining electoral and protest parties. Pachakutik Party in 2002 with Lucio Gutierrez worked with indigenous movements to overthrow a corrupt government. Suddenly turned back on indigenous people and signed a number of IMF agreements. Bolivia: Movement Toward Socialism (MTS). 1
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