1) Analyse Concepts of Protective and
-Protection of Minorities vs majority(and their culture), due to constant risk of segeration and
-Avoidance of assimilitation/oppression
-Avoidance of “majority rule” in democracy: creates special protection for minorities
-Protecting minorities is internal to minority groups, and how it effects conditions within the
-Is multiculturalism just “protective”? You should respect minority culture, we should
embrace it, two sides of every argument
-Dependant on understanding of multiculturalism
-Means multiple tounges/languages
-Expansion of autonomous choice for individuals, choices to choose to preserve our identities
-Borrowing and “appropriation” of cultures by borrowing elements from various cultures to form
-Apporpriation: Create own element, this is now part of my identity/life: Smoking marijuana is
an example as some make it part of their identity
-To what extent is borrowing genuine? To what extent is it not betrayed by the original
meanings? How do we know if curry we eat is Indian curry?
-One hand is that it enriches our lives, another is that we make it our own
-Celebration of Diversity? Or misrepresentation of cultural values?
Out of respect or enjoyment of diversity? Or mockery of cultures 2) Dimension of Multiculturalism:
-Three dimensional to Multiculturalism:
-Multiculturalism challenges nations as cultural communities, notion that nation is primary or
only meaningful membership
-Definition of “Who you are” should nto be made upon nationalistic lines.
-Do we embrace Canadian identity; can we just focus on one Canadian identity?
-Coexistence of cultures in state-bounded territory—state creates politics of belonging, not
neutral here and tries to impose it’s agenda
-For state to assert national identity, there’s no problem, that’s identity.
-Tension between political and cultural boundries, state is assumed to have cultural/political
unity—only one political culture, simplistic view of state and nation
-Is culture homogenised by the state?
-Migration: Challenges power of state in multiculturalism—flow of people leads to movement
and resettlement. States try to impose its borders and its power within the borders.
-Technological Change: Causes changes in movement, social media allows for bridges between
countries as communication, mental sentiment
-Leads to Weakening of Nationalism: Our membership in a globalized world, no longer in a
nationalized border which are eroding—cosmopolitanism
1) Challenge to “nation”
-Culture as “community”
-Entire life of individuals—affects entire life of individuals, encompasses all individuals, we live
entire life within cultures. Culture needed to give meaning to life
2) Recognition of Minorities: Relative majorities, minority groups, what’s important here is that
multiculturalism seeks recognition of those minorities. Pushes for restoration of minority culture
-Divides society in minorities and majority—unequal power & cultural incompatibility
-Historical vs migration minority: What is the difference?
-Historical Minority: “They were here before”
-Migration Minority: Minorities migrated to a single place. -Quest for “Group Rights”: Reforms pushed to recognize rights of minority groups to address
-Create specific set of laws that apply to a group: people want group rights to ensure protection
-Democracy & Citizenship: it guarantees equ