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Lecture 5

Week 5 Old Governance vs New Governance- The State Population Issues.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

Week 5 Old Governance vs New Governance: The State Population Issues Chapter 2 Population and Environment Population - wealthier people get, the less children they have - 10 countries with the slowest growing population have had negative population growth The Problem with People - fast growing populations have greater number of younger than older - slow growing, negative growth populations have a greater number of older than younger people - one child policy: set of regulations governing gamily size and spacing of children in cases where second child is permitted - demographics: composition of population - pronatalist: governments that want to promote birth and population growth opposed to restricting birth The Distribution of Population - Worlds population isn’t distributed equally - Population density: measure of how many people are in a given mile or kilometer - Asia is most densely populated Immigrants - Immigrant receiving societies: United States, Russia, Germany, Ukraine, France, Saudi Arabia, Canada, India, Britain, Spain - Immigration Corridor: heavily travelled route taken by people immigrating to one country to another - Immigrants bring benefits to receiving countries, like diversity, new ways of life, new skills, and reinforcements for the workplace - It’s a challenge for immigrant receiving societies to adjust and integrate in their new home countries immigrant communities often live together closely connected and densely populated pockets within the receiving population, forming societies within societies or nations within nations - Strongly challenging identities of some countries, and raising issues about coherence and integrity of a nation culture Migrant Workers - Migrant Workers: people that have citizenship and a permanent home in one country but live temporarily for work purposes - Labour-Intensive: not heavily mechanized and require people power - Illegal Immigrants: people who have entered the work country without any passport, visa, or permission Refugees - Immigrants: people that leave their home country voluntarily, seeking to make new and better life for themselves - Refugee: person who has been forced to leave his or her country involuntarily, usually war or persecution - Internally Displaced Persons: refugees but in their own country, forced out of home region into different region of the same country Urbanization - Urbanization: growth of the population of cities at the expense of rural or countryside areas, a population trend in both developed and developing worlds - Rural Flight: people leave the country in hope of finding better opportunities in the city - Urbanization has been deeply intertwined with both modernization and industrialization - Cities tend to offer better quality of social services like education, entertainment, healthcare, and poverty management Transition From Human Population to Natural Environment - Neo-Malthusians: incredible growth of the human population cannot be sustained, soon enough humans will be too many in number for the planet to feed, water, clothe, and house Environment and Resources - environment refers to the natural setting in which human beings exist - refers to the Earth’s various, most vital, natural cycles and systems which we depend upon for life and well being: atmosphere, land, resources, water, sea life, plant world, and the animal kingdom - Resources: inputs used to produce something like food Pessimists Open the Argument - environmental pessimists: focus on the enormous and very rapid growth in human population, and the rise of industrialization: mechanized mass- production using large-scale advanced machinery and artificial measures - Carrying Capacity: Earth and its resources are finite, and a limit of population growth, and resource use Environmental Management and Sustainable Development - Environmental Management: finding a smart balance between using enough resources to satisfy present demands yet not using all the resources, therefore enough for future generations - Sustainability: not using resources to exhaustion, not polluting the environment but rather managing growth and consumption so future generations will continue to enjoy the
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