Week 1 Globalization.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

Week 1. What is Globalization? What is Governance? Governance - Governance refers to all processes of governing, whether undertaking from the government, market, or network, over a family, tribe, formal or informal organization, or territory, and whether through laws, norms, power, or language - It is about processes of rule more than institutions of government, and these processes increasingly involve organizational hybrids that cross hierarchy, market, and network, and embrace multiple actors from the public, private, and voluntary sectors - Differs from government, focuses less on the state and its institutions and more on social practices and activities - Process of governing doesn’t need to be consciously undertaken by a hierarchically organized set of actors - Government refers to processes of rule where they occur - Governments rely on private and voluntary sector actors to manage and deliver services as it gives a greater scope to markets and networks - Governance as an abstract theoretical concept refers to all processes of social organization and social coordination, social organization need not involve oversight and control - Governance as a more concrete empirical use refers to the changing organizational practices within corporation, public sector, and the global order - Important feature of new governance is that it combines established administrative arrangements with features of the market, it is multijurisdictional and often transnational, and there is an increasing range and pluralist of stakeholder Corporate Governance - Involves the interests of shareholders, the responsibility of the board of directors, rights of other stakeholders, and appropriate ethical standards, notably of disclosure and transparency - Concerns the rules and practices by which companies are administrated, especially when the ownership of a company are separate - The shareholders are the principals and the managers are the agents - Key principle is the rights of shareholders and the main issue is how to ensure that the rights of shareholders are properly safeguarded - General consists of a centralized management overseen by a board of directors, they exercised hierarchic control over executives and middle-level managers Core Concepts and Historical Cultures - International Public Spaces: places un-owned by any country. There are three such places currently recognized: Antarctica, the “high seas”, and “near space” (atmosphere) - Country: the most basic unit of international studies, over 200 countries, defined by four vital components: a territory (and its resources), a human population, culture, and state or government - Nation: group of people that sees itself as a people, in other words, as belonging together in some meaningful sense as a unit that has its own identity and is separate and distinct from other comparable groups  Racial or ethnic background  Common language  Shared historical experience and memories  Religious beliefs and cultural practices  Diet/cuisine and fashion choices  Common ways of believing about, and behaving in, the world - Nationalism: a recognition of, and attachment to, one’s nation. More specifically, and historically, nationalism often implies the impulse of a nation to get and form its own separate country, governed by a state of its own choosing - Culture: how people live, think, and behave; a way of life - High Culture: though to be of especially good quality, or enduring merit, though to represent the very best and most meaningful pieces of culture (ex. Groundbreaking works of art, landmark works of poetry, pieces of architecture) - Low Culture: more common or widespread forms of belief and behavior, such as dietary practices, popular music and books, sports, TV, and radio content, Internet, as well as religious practices - Secularism: non religious approach tot life, atheists, agnostics, secular humanists, and opposed to religion - Influential and important non-state actors would be: multinational corporations, aid and development charities, or NGOs, social movements or international interest groups, terrorist groups, insurgent forces, and private militias - State: refers to the government of a country, group of people responsible for making and enforcing the rules that regulate the collective life of a people and thereby making an orderly social life possible on a given territory - City States: not big national communities governed by state structures but
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