POLA83 lecture notes

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Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

Week 5: Human Rights (a public good?) Collective goods (public goods) possess two characteristics. A. Jointness of supply a. If a good is supplied to any member of a group, then it is supplied to all members of that group. In contrast to private goods, collective goods are therefore indivisible. If new members are added to the group, other members who are currently benefiting from (or consuming) the good will not receive a diminished amount. As in any prisoners dilemma, both sides have an incentive to defect (erect trade barriers), because, no matter what the other side does, defecting will yield a better outcome for the defector. Unfortunately, the equilibrium outcome is mutual protectionism. B. Non-exclusiveness. a. A jointly supplied good may be either excludable or non-excludable. Some jointly supplied goods can be withheld from members of the group, but a collective good is jointly supplied and non-excludable. Democracy, a term made of 2 Greek words: Demos (people) and kratia (rule) A. Forms of democracy: a. Direct b. Indirect c. Presidential (USA) d. Parliamentary (Canada) e. Constitutionalism (rule based on constitution) i. The UK has no written constitution B. Notions of democracy: a. Legitimacy b. rule of law c. human rights i. civic rights ii. social rights. C. Forms of political participation: a. elections, referendum, petition, enquiry, court decision i. also, protest, demonstration D. Forms of elections: a. winner-takes-all (or first-past-the-post) Canada, UK b. proportional representation Role of political parties: A. Party has to have: 1 a. program b. structure c. leadership d. membership B. Its main tasks: a. aggregation of interests b. articulation of interests c. execution of interests C. Party can be: a. national b. regional A collection of parties in a political system constitutes a party system. A party system is a subsystem of the political system. A. Role of Loyal Opposition: check on the government and party (ies) in power. B. Role of Interest Groups: for example, trade unions, business association Civil Society (Is there a GLOBAL Civil Society?) Characteristics of Civil society: A. Politics rooted in democracy B. Political system based on constitutionalism C. Citizens politically active utilizing B. in the sprit of A. Hence, what would be the form of a global democracy? o rights and global democracy o position of women o what model of it? Westminster model o Who can promote it? The US? Iraq Who else? Promoting Democracy -Old Governance vs. New Governance: A. OLD Governance: the state a. The Cold War: 1945-1990 i. Modernization (Developmentalism) 1. Almond and Verba: If there is a political revolution going on throughout the world, it is what might be called the 2participation explosion 1 the belief that the ordinary man is politically relevant . 2. Totalitarianism: Brzezinski and Friedrich 3. Waves of Democratization: Huntington (Political Order in Changing Societies Clash of Civilizations) a. West Europe b. Latin America c. East Europe d. Third Wave and Clash of Civilizations (Culture-Religion) ii. American Exceptionalism 1. S. M. Lipset b. Economic development and Modernization: W. Rostow B. NEW Governance: the market a. Globalization (1990s) i. Free market and free society ii. Free market and Democracy Juan Linz iii. Democracies do not go to war! b. Global Politics: Global International Relations i. Realisminsulated from history c. Global foreign policy i. Foreign Policy - A guide to action taken beyond the boundaries of a state to further the goals of the state ii. MAIN decision-making units of it are: 1. old foreign policy the state 2. new foreign policy ?????? d. Goals and Objectives of OLD Foreign
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