POLA84_Wk_02.pdf

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLD89H3
Professor
Waldemar Skrobacki

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Wk 2 POLA84 REALISM:  International system is in a constant state of anarchy  The only truly important actor in the international system is the state  All state are sovereign; hence on one else but the state can come to some kind of arrangements with other states SOVEREIGNTY: Black's Law Dictionary (Sixth Edition) The supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power by which any independent state is governed; supreme political authority; the supreme will; paramount control of the constitution and frame of government and its administration; the self-sufficient source of political power, from which all specific political powers are derived; the international independence of a state, combined with the right and power of regulating its internal affairs without foreign dictation; also a political society, or state, which is sovereign and independent. The power to do everything in a state without accountability, --to make laws, to execute and to apply them, to impose and collect taxes and levy contributions, to make war or peace, to form treaties of alliance or of commerce with foreign nations, and the like. Sovereignty in government is that public authority which directs or orders what is to be done by each member associated in relation to the end of the association. It is the supreme power by which any citizen is governed and is the person or body of persons in the state to whom there is politically no superior. The necessary existence of the state and that right and power which necessarily follow is "sovereignty." By "sovereignty" in its largest sense is meant supreme, absolute, uncontrollable power, the absolute right to govern. The word which by itself comes nearest to being the definition of "sovereignty" is will or volition as applied to political affairs. Bouvier's Law Dictionary (1856 Edition) SOVEREIGN STATE. One which governs itself independently of any foreign power. SOVEREIGNTY. The union and exercise of all human power possessed in a state; it is a combination of all power; it is the power to do everything in a state without accountability; to make laws, to execute and to apply them: to impose and collect taxes, and, levy, contributions; to make war or peace; to form treaties of alliance or of commerce with foreign nations, and the like. Story on the Const. §207. 2. Abstractedly, sovereignty resides in the body of the nation and belongs to the people. But these powers are generally exercised by delegation. 3. When analyzed, sovereignty is naturally divided into three great powers; namely, the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary; the first is the power to make new laws, and to correct and repeal the old; the second is the power to execute the laws both at home and abroad; and the last is the power to apply the laws to particular facts; to judge the disputes which arise among the citizens, and to punish crimes. 1Wk 2 POLA84 In the context of Rights and Duties of States, the Restatement of the Law Third states: "'Sovereignty' is a term used in many senses and is much abused. As used here, it implies a state's lawful control over its territory generally to the exclusion of other states, authority to govern in that territory, and authority to apply law there."  States act selfishly; selfishness is what drives them  The main engine of selfish behavior is national security, for if there is no security there is no state  To be secure, the state’s main objective is to attain power  Security is a zero-sum game  Ethics are incompatible with the international system, hence o Any inclusion of ethics will cause more conflict  In its selfish nature, states are similar to humans  States are also inherently aggressive Main proponents of Realism: Sun Tzu (Art of War); T. Hobbes (
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