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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

Global This! and Global That! … and Global Community It Is (or not) VARIOUS Definitions of CULTURE: 1. arts collectively: art, music, literature, and related intellectual activities, considered collectively The influence of American culture in China. popular culture 2. knowledge and sophistication: enlightenment and sophistication acquired through education and exposure to the arts They are people of (high) culture. Pop culture and tolerance 3. shared beliefs and values of group: the beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people European culture 4. people with shared beliefs and practices: a group of people whose shared beliefs and practices identify the particular place, class, or time to which they belong Peruvian culture 5. shared attitudes: a particular set of attitudes that characterizes a group of people The company tries hard to avoid a blame culture. 6. growing of biological material: the growing of biological material, especially plants, microorganisms, or animal tissue, in a nutrient substance culture medium in specially controlled conditions for scientific, medical, or commercial purposes 7. biotechnology biological material grown in special conditions: biological material, especially plants, microorganisms, or animal tissue, grown in a nutrient substance culture medium in specially controlled conditions for scientific, medical, or commercial purposes 8. tillage: the cultivation of the land or soil in preparation for growing crops or plants 9. improvement: the development of a skill or expertise through training or education physical culture Georg Simmel: Culture is "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history". 1 th In the 20 century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings: (1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively. Following World War II, the term became important, albeit with different meanings, in other disciplines such as cultural studies, organizational psychology and management studies Canadian Heritage is responsible for national policies and programs that promote Canadian content, foster cultural participation, active citizenship and participation in Canada's civic life, and strengthen connections among Canadians (http://www.pch.gc.ca/index-eng.cfm ) cultural studies 1. multidisciplinary study of culture across social strata: the study of culture from a sociological rather than an aesthetic viewpoint. It draws on the social sciences such as politics and semiotics, rather than traditional forms of literary, artistic, or musical criticism. 2. broad-based university course: a wide-ranging educational course, especially at college or university level, covering all aspects of culture, the arts, sciences, and social science. It is often intended as a foundation for other courses. DEFINITION FOR OUR COURSE: CULTURE IS THE WAY WE LIVE Culture, therefore, is the fabric of community. Hence, A. Globalization in the sense of Americanization involves cultural homogenization, i.e. global culture is supposed to be like American culture: cola, iPod, Britney, Big Mac, etc. a. The critics of this form of globalization say that Americanization is a frontal attack on cultural diversity, including deep-seated customs and traditions. It is CULTURAL IMPERIALISM. b. Broader sense: the North imposing also culture on the South 2 c. PAX BRITANNIA and PAX AMERICANA B. Globalization as a mixture of internationalization and deterritorialization a. Culture is and will stay diverse b. Culture should not be an object of globalization, therefore c. What could be done is to use cultural diversity as a starting point for building some kind of de-territorialized community needed for solving transnational problems: peace, environment, poverty, etc. C. Both understanding of globalization share a common point: need for some form of “global” community. To have one, we have to communicate with one another. To do so, we have to use a language we understand. a. Prevelance of English as a “world language” Main languages Number of speakers Language Family Principal locations (estimated in millions) Chinese Sino-Tibetan China 885 (Mandarin) English Indo-European North America, Great Britain, 450 (Germanic group) Australia, South Africa Hindi-Urdu Indo-European (Indo- India, Pakistan 333 Iranian group) Indo-European Spanish (Romance group) South America, Spain 266 Indo-European Portuguese (Romance group) Brazil, Portugal 175 Indo-European (Indo- Bengali Iranian group) Bangladesh, India 162 Indo-European (Slavic Russian Former Soviet Union 153 group) Arabic Afro-Asiatic North Africa, Middle East 150 3 Japanese Altaic Japan 126 Indo-European France, Canada, Belgium, French 122 (Romance group) Switzerland, Black Africa German Indo-European Germany, Austria, Switzerland 118 (Germanic group) Wu Sino-Tibetan China (Shanghai) 77 Javanese Austronesian Indonesia (Java) 75 Korean Altaic Korea 72 Indo-European Italian (Romance group) Italy 63 Indo-European (Indo- Marathi Iranian group) South India 65 Telugu Dravidian South India
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