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Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

(New) Global Security Dilemma WORLD GOVERNMENT An ideal: world government equals no anarchy in international politics and no security dilemma BALANCE OF POWER States are secure (and secured) when their inter-state relations are based on balance of power, i.e. the states are more or less equal powerful and, therefore, feel secure. Hence, they are less willing to go to war with others. SECURITY DILEMMA The security dilemma = paradox: a state tries making itself more secure and ends up being less secure. This is so, for its actions will make other state(s) more likely to take similar steps For example, India feels threatened by Pakistan and tries to build aircraft carriers so it can project force. Pakistan, in turn, concludes that Indian aircraft carriers will make it less secure. This starts an arms race. Conflict between the two is more likely. John H. Herz, “Idealist Internationalism and Security Dilemma”, World Politics, Vol. 2(1950), p.157-158; In the “traditional” or REALIST view, security dilemma – inter-state level. However SOCIETAL (or ONTOLOGICAL) SECURITY DILEMMA A societal security dilemma might exist when the actions of society A that tries to increase its security , by strengthening its own identity, causes a reaction in society B. As a result, society A decreases its own societal security by weakening its own identity. Paul Roe, “The Societal Security Dilemma”, Copenhagen Peace Research Institute Working Papers, June 1996. GLOBAL SECURITY DILEMMA This principle aims not only to promote cooperative interaction between states, but also peaceful coexistence between cultural groups and civilizations. A new classification of global security comprises five dimensions of security 1. Human 2. Environmental 3. National 4. Transnational 5. transcultural security The idea of five dimensional security is based on justice, which is treated as prerequisite and is based on the multi-sum security principle (not on zero-sum) 1"In a globalized world, security can no longer be thought of as a zero-sum game involving states alone. Global security, instead, has five dimensions that include human, environmental, national, transnational, and transcultural security, and, therefore, global security and the security of any state or culture cannot be achieved without good governance at all levels that guarantees security through justice for all individuals, states, and cultures." Nayef Al-Rodhan THE FIVE DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL SECURITY: Proposal for a Multi-sum Security Principle REGIONAL SECURITY DILEMMA A region of the international system become more secure when there is a regional security arrangement. For in the transatlantic region, NATO is a regional security organization. In the Asia-Pacific region there is no such arrangement; hence, the region “by nature” is more prone to conflict. ISSUE-ORIENTED SECURITY DILEMMA For example,  Energy security dilemma  Global security dilemma (international terrorism)  Homeland security dilemma  Nuclear security dilemma SECURITY DILEMMA IN THE 21 CENTURY (after 9/11) The core problems of security in the 21st century world have changed profoundly. In particular, there has been a clear shift in the dominant form of violence and conflict from one characterized by interstate wars to one in which civil wars, crossborder wars and “low intensity” or guerrilla-type wars – including terrorism – increasingly predominate and proliferate. Of course, civil and cross-border wars are nothing new, and terrorism has been with us throughout human history (Wilkinson, 1974; Laqueur, 1977). However, their interconnectedness, and the way they are inextricably intertwined with other aspects of globalization – linkages that cut across states and crystallize below the level of states – is the key to understanding the nature of contemporary security and insecurity (Berzins and Cullen, 2003). Philip G. Cerny, “The New Security Dilemma Revisited: Neomedievalism and the Limits of Hegemony,” in Peter st Dombrowski, ed., The Political Economy of International Security in the 21 Century (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, forthcoming) st NEOMEDIEVALISM is to be the new framework for security dilemma in 21 century Neomedievalism as a concept is notable primarily for its metaphorical value. In contrast to our modern notions of st
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