POLA84_Wk_04 Lecture notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

Week 4 Jan 31Old Governance vs New Governance The NationState and Global Governance Institutions and Global EconomyOLD or Traditional or Westphalian Global Governance OutlineI Aspects of PowerA Power and InfluenceB Soft Power1 Power of Agenda Setting2 Power of Ideas Norms and ValuesC Power and CapabilityII National Capabilities Tangible ElementsA Geography and DemographyB Economic and Military ResourcesC Comparing Capabilities Indexes of PowerIII National Capabilities Intangible ElementsA Intelligence1 Goals Plans and Intentions2 Knowledge of the Other3 FeedbackIV Diplomatic InfluenceA Five Substantive Functions of DiplomacyB Negotiation and BargainingC Conflict ResolutionV Military and Economic InfluenceA Use of ForceB Threatening to Use ForceC Beyond the Use of ForceD Economic Persuasion SummaryI Aspects of Power National power can be thought of as a relationship It takes on meaning only as it affects a states behavior toward another state or international actor The menu of any state then is constrained or affected not only by its own capabilities goals policies and actions but also by those of the other entity with which it interactsby the states attempts to influence others and by the attempts of others to influence it Broadly defined power is the ability to overcome obstacles and influence outcomes Power can be seen as a set of national capabilities or as a process of exercising influence Influence can mean coaxing another country into stopping an action it is already pursuing in which case it is called compellence A policy aimed at influencing another state or nonstate actor to stop an action it is already pursuing also called coercive diplomacy In contrast deterrence A policy aimed at influencing another state or nonstate actor to not do something it would otherwise prefer aims to keep an actor from doing something it would normally do If a nation has potential influence which is hard to measure other countries may not attempt certain actions for fear of reprisal Relationships between states can be seen in two ways First we can look at how two states compare on a set of national attributes or characteristics Second we can look at the actual set of interactions between pairs of states We will be concerned with both power as a set of national attributes or capabilities and power as a process of exercising influence Capability and influence become meaningful only when compared with the capabilities of others and their own attempts to influence outcomes Comparison implies measurement a key question in international relations is how much power an actor has In looking at power both as a set of capabilities and as influence we highlight the problems of creating indicators to measure powerA Power and Influence In an era of growing interdependence power may simply mean the ability to have an impact on the behavior of other actorsto affect the opportunities available to others and their willingness to choose particular courses of action which is possible even for a small and relatively weak actor Some people see power as the ability to reduce uncertainty in the environment and for some it is a means to an end For others power has come to mean causality because explaining who has power explains why things happen Realism is a view of international politics that begins with the observation that actors seek power and aim to dominate others This view of power is centered on struggle among sovereign states within the anarchic international system and is usually characterized by the use and manipulation of military resources Other observers however object to the realists emphasis on constant struggle and their highly conflictual coercive and militaristic interpretation of the concept of power They argue that although power is central to international politics it takes many forms Power is not exercised only in situations of armed conflict or potential armed conflict but also through influencing setting the agenda and influencing rules in a variety of arenas including tradeB Soft Power Soft power is a more subtle form of structural influence over the values held by other states Soft power is a way to exercise influence through attraction as opposed to coercion hard power Influencing the agenda of issues under consideration is a form of soft power Powerful states can influence more than the choices of other states they also influence other states menus by removing some options altogether This has been called structural power because it involves the ability of state A to influence the context or environment surrounding state Bs decisionsthat is the structure of the situation in which B finds itself Structural power enables one country to influence the environment surrounding another countrys decisions Once the purview of radical scholars of world politics this notion of power has become widely accepted and applied by realists and liberals as well1 Power of Agenda Setting Foreign policymakers know well the importance of controlling the agenda human rights violations and other nondemocratic practices are usually declared to be internal affairs matters of national sovereignty by states subjected to international criticism That the issue of human rights is in fact increasingly discussed by states gives some indication of the structural power exercised by the United States and other Western democracies in world politics By concentrating exclusively on whether and to what extent states such as China or Iran or Cuba actually change their behavior in response to US policy we might miss this more subtle exercise of power
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