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Lecture 13

PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Necker Cube, Ambiguous Image, Gestalt Psychology

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Steve Joordens

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Lecture 13: Vision: Perception
-sensation is the in taking of raw data from vision
-once raw data is transmitted to the brain, the brain is using past exposure to the world and
trying to recognize what it is
-the context behind the stimulus is essential for our brain to comprehend what we are seeing
-e.g. 13 can look like B depending on whether numbers or letters are beside it
-e.g. a Necker cube, can change ones perception of the cube and it is a reversible figure
-the issue of figure vs ground, how do we distinguish the visual stimulus from the background
-the bi-polar cells help to detect the contours of the stimulus and see the edges of the object
-a goal in technology is for artificial intelligence to be able to distinguish the objects by it
contours and edges and recognize what it is
-e.g. two faces vs vase, it is an ambiguous picture depending on what you see as the figure and
what is the ground
-a lot of artists will use perception (figure vs ground) to create cool artworks
-perception is dependent on context (e.g. a story being told) and instructions for one to see a
certain way
-e.g. old hag vs young woman
-visual illusions play on our perception
-gestalt (when the whole is more than the sum of its parts) principles is when something
emerges and it seems to be more than what is actually there
-results in the use of grouping, why do you see things are a single item and how do things group
-proximity is when things are close together we see them as one things
-for example placing eight dots more closely in groups of two, and we would associate the dots
to be in pairs
-similar colour in which we would group things depending on their colour
-e.g. black vs white dots
-similar size is when things that are in common size tend to be grouped together
-common fate is when things move through time or space together they are grouped together
-e.g. when animals are camouflaged and start moving allowing us to identify them
-good continuation is when things are grouped even though we can see them partially with
something hiding it and we associated it to continue (lines)
-e.g. a line in which we see the corners only and we assume it is a square, despite not seeing
the lines/edges fully
-closure is when we see things fully despite not seeing it fully (shapes)
-e.g. a shape like a Pacman is usually seen a full circle with something hiding it
-gestalt principles are to figure out how things comes together and want to figure out what that
thing is when we see something
-we also need to determine where the thing is in our line of vision
-e.g. we are good at playing catch since we are able to track the ball in space when both eyes
are open, when only one eye is open it is harder to catch the ball
-binocular cue is information we get from having two eyes
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