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Lecture 15

PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Delta Wave, Sensory Deprivation, Sleepwalking

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Steve Joordens

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Lecture 15 & 16: Altered States of Consciousness
-consciousness may be referred the internal voice and self-awareness, however many things
can affect consciousness
-consciousness can be altered by sleep, hypnosis, drugs and sensory deprivation
-we spend a significant portion of the day sleeping, lying down defenseless for 8 hours a day
-sleep must have an important function- or we would have evolved to be able to function on
less sleep
-evolution explains that sleep is not important, since we sleep when its dark because we are not
able to see, because we rely on our visual senses for survival and we cannot hunt successfully
with the potential to waste our energy
-we are still unsure of what sleep does
-we started to research sleep when the EEG is being used in research, which measures electrical
signals from the brain
-researchers connected the EEG to humans when they are sleeping and found a pattern (sleep
-stages of sleep:
-stage 1: alpha waves (high frequency waves, low amplitude) similar to a state when we are
-stage 2: where we start to drift off, amplitude becomes higher, and breathing and heartbeat
-stage 3: frequency is lower, high amplitude (delta waves), deep sleep
-stage 4: very deep sleep (more delta waves)
-stage 5: REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, dreams, eye movements may match their dreams
(e.g. tennis match)
-and then we go back to stage 1, etc.
-the easo e sa do’t ake up sleepalkes is that the ill e e disoietated
-when we get woken up during deep sleep it makes our bodies feel physically heavy
-at the end of stage 4 and before stage 5, our brains release a drug that paralyzes movement,
the only thing preventing us from reenacting our dreams
-stages of sleep from stage 1-5 take about 45 minutes, the time we spend on each stage differs
each time throughout the night, we have less deep sleep in the later part of the night, and more
REM sleep, the more you sleep, the more you dream
-if e do’t let a ogais sleep, the die afte epeieig hai loss ad od temperature
-o he soeties e disupt people’s sleep i a etai stage of sleep i a stud
-when people see that we spend so much time in deep sleep, it come to the theory that sleep
restores our energy and repairs our body, which leads to studies involving marathon runners
and how much sleep they get before the race and comparing to see if it affects their ability in
the marathon- results in no relationship
-sleep has no impact on performance?
-however, it may depend on the task, running a marathon is just putting one foot in front of the
other, while other tasks that do depend on strategizing, sleep is more important
-anything that depends on deep thought requires sleep
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