PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Jane Goodall, Eye Color, Naturalistic Observation

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15 Nov 2016
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PSYA01
Lecture 5: Theories
- How scientists find truth
Theories and hypotheses
- Hypothesis is a statement and an underlying theory
- Best theories are when you find out their wrong
- If they cant be tested, they aren’t good theories or hypotheses
- Good theories are falsifiable
- Evolution theory: How life is formed
Where to find theories
- Naturalistic observation
- Jane goodall had no scientific experience
o Watched chimpanzees
o Knew that watching them would change their behaviour
o Best way to get the chimps act they way they normally would, she
would need to blend in
o She noticed that there was a social hierarchy, communicated by the
eyes
Some chimps wouldn’t look in the eyes of others, they were on
the bottom of the social hierarchy
o Her hypothesis was that chimps have a social structure developed
through eye gazes
o At a zoo, people are constantly staring at them and they cant
reciprocate because they are behind glass
Terminology
- Variable: anything that can take on multiple values
- Eye colour, for example can have the values of green, blue, brown, etc.
(Categorical Variable)
- Height is a continuous variable because it lies on a continuum
- Categorical vs continuous are normally based on measurements
Descriptive Stats
- With studies comes data
- Working with numbers to find an answer to your question
- Take data and explain it clearly to others
o Descriptive Stats
- Answering questions
o Inferential stats
Frequency Distribution
- Taking data and turning it into a frequency table
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