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Lecture 21

PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Echoic Memory, George Sperling, Clive Wearing


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Lecture
21

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Lecture 21: Memory: Not a Singular Noun
-we use the term, memory like a singular noun, but we actually have multiple memories
-memory is a plural verb, not a singular noun
-memory is a process
-Clive Wearing had a herpes simplex virus, that caused a really big fever (basically cooked the
brain), and extensive damage is done to the brain (almost all parts of the brain related to
memory)
-Wearing became a living example of what it would be like if humans have no memory system
-he had no memory of past experiences, causing him to feel confusion and like he never felt
anything before
-Wearing has no memory and ends up living in the present, and things that happened some
tie efore did’t happe i his perspetie
-it’s like he eperiees thigs agai ad again, but he still remembers how to do something
(e.g. play the piano)
-many different memory systems
-some are sensory memory systems, where it only keeps input we receive from the eyes, ears,
etc. for a short period of time
-short-term memory a.k.a working memory, kind of like consciousness, where we remember
things for a short period of time
-long-term memory, where you learn something and can gain access to it later
-this is subdivided into two types, explicit and implicit
-explicit memory is things you consciously remember
-implicit memory is things we learned, the procedures (procedural memory), things we do not
consciously have to remember
-episodic memory is a type of explicit memory that we remember events that happen to us
-semantic memory is facts and concepts that we learned and tried to remember
-sesor trae is he e reeer a stiulus’ origial plae, ee he it oed to aother
location
-e.g. of sensory trace, a flashlight being waved in the dark
-George Sperling called visual sensory memory, iconic memory
-full report condition is when a participant is asked to remember some items (in this case,
letters) and be able to recite as many as they can
-in this condition, on average, participants can remember 4.5 letters
-partial report is when participants are only asked for a certain row of items out of all the items
they tried to remember
-on average, participants get 2.5 correct out of the 3 letters they need to remember
-Sperling hypothesized from these results that since people are able to remember in a partial
report better than a full report, this means that they must remember 7.5 out of 9 letters
-but when participants are trying to do full report, they cannot remember as many letters, since
they tend to forget the letters in the middle
-these experiments are used to test for iconic memory, where the visual system is holding onto
things we saw; the stimulus may have moved away before we can turn our attention to it, but
we still remember the stimuli being there
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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