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Lecture 23

PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Episodic Memory

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Steve Joordens

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Lecture 23: Memory: Explicit Memory
-in order for you to remember something, 3 things need to happen: 1) encode information, 2)
storage of memory, 3) retrieving stored information (tip-of-the-tongue phenomena)
-not just about thinking of stuff deeply in order for things to be remembered, we need to also
focus on the structure of how we remember things
-size of your memory is less relevant to how you organize your information
-e.g. if you collect recipes, and you organized your recipes in a specific way (appetizers, main
dish, desserts, etc.) vs just placing all recipes in a box; it will take you less time to find
something specific if you organized it in the beginning
-you want to put new information to connect to old information
-we often wish we can remember things very well, but we also need to forget things well, since
there are incidents that you wish to forget
-Jill Prie is ale to reeer eerythig that is releat to her, she does’t forget aythig
that happen in her life
-Price is a obsessive encoder, and remembers all negative criticism that happen in her life and
she is not doing too well in life (with her family and career), due to her memory blocking her
way to happiness and she cannot let go of things that happened in the past
-when it comes to remembering something, it is easier to encode things to memory by thinking
about things deeply/connections, using weird imagery, organizing the information
-however there is another process that occurs, and it seems to be linked to sleep
-you have some experience now (e.g. you interact with someone), and our mind does
something a few hours later, consolidation, which reorganizes our memory
-e.g. a study that was done is the researcher would sit on the sideline of a football game and
wait until someone gets knocked down and ask them if they remember what play their team
was doing and the play before that; results is that people who got knocked out, they not
remember what play was going on and the ones before that, thus showing the importance of
consolidating information
-information will be eventually remembered after a person recovers from a concussion, but
there will be a period of time that the person will not remember ever
-deep sleep is critical for consolidating information, dream sleep is for consolidating procedural
-episodic memory, things that happened to you and you will have a little replay of the moment
when asked to recall the event
-semantic memory, facts that you know, but they come to your mind with no memory of how
you learned this fact, once you learned something and get this information repeatedly from
many sources it gets detached from the event in which you initially learned it
-both episodic and semantic memory are conscious memory
-we often think of memory as something that happens at the end of a process with perception
as the beginning, but our memory is more powerful and it affects how we perceive things
-e.g. a classroom, if you go to some place and recognize its a classroom, you used a schema of
the classroom when you determine what the place is
-e.g. two restaurants, one is fast food, and the other is a formal restaurant, all fast food
restaurants had a similar style, and all formal restaurants have similar style. We learn that a
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