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Lecture 24

PSYA01H3 Lecture 24: Language

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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Cotiued fro last leture…
-when partiipats are reeerig thigs that did’t happe; a false eory is iplated i
oe’s eory
-for humans, we remember bits and pieces of the memory and we will come up with a story
that links it all
-memory is a recreation process, not a retrieval process
-a study that was conducted is to present words underwater, or on land to groups of
participants and are tested on how many words they remember either back on land or
underwater; there are 4 groups: 1) learn on the land, test on the land, 2) learn underwater, test
underwater, 3) learn on land, test underwater, 4) learn underwater, test on land
-the study found that if you are tested in the environment where you learned the material, you
perform better when tested
-similarly, if you are drunk and you learned something, you are more likely to remember the
thing if you are drunk again (the internal context needs to match)
-also when you feel happy when you learn something, you may be able to retrieve something
better if you are happy when you were being tested
-psyhologists are ale to hage the partiipat’s ood y playig usi that is assoiated to
certain moods
-this is state dependent learning
-the most extreme case of state dependent learning is transfer appropriate processing, in which
you want not only the external environment to be similar, but also the yourself to internally be
similar (e.g. for an exam, try thinking like the ta or the professor and make up some questions)
Lecture 24: Language
-language is really exceptional, since it seems to be uniquely human
-communication is not unique to humans, animals do communicate through body language and
through sounds (depends on species)
-however, no other animal can record their language through writing or talk with correct
-human language allows us to communicate to each other through time (e.g. in the form of a
book, sound recording, etc.)
-we also share our learning through language/communication
-animals have a very good receptive language
-e.g a dog is faced with many items/toys, and the owner can command the dog to do something
specific with a certain item
-it’s ulear hether the dog atually uderstads the ords spoke or is it the ay ho e
say the words
-some researchers say that animals do not have proper use of language, the ability to work with
complex grammar
-a sentence may have different meanings depending on how the words are arranged
-we have been discussing consciousness, but what is it for?
-a theory: a mother deer and a young fawn, but the mother has many young fawn and takes
one with her to a new feeding spot, where they encounter a predator, and the young fawn
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