PSYA01H3 Lecture 20: Learning in the Real World

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3 Dec 2016
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PSYA01
Lecture 20: Learning in the Real World
- Generalization and Discrimination
o Wedding days
o Generalization
Example: Pavlov’s dog responding to a different bell that is
similar to the other stimulus
o Discrimination
Opposite of above
Hearing a different tone in the stimulus
The dogs do not salivate as they are discriminating
against this different tone
o We have multiple personalities that change in the conditions we’re in
o During a wedding, people know you in different ways are surrounding
you
- Importance of Secondary Reinforcers
o Primary: Relate to basic drives (Biological)
o Secondary: Example: Money
Don’t relate to primary needs but make us feel good
How we are different from animals
We are the only living beings that are aware that we die
Aware of long term affects
More attractive people tend to take up smoking when they are
younger because it seems like a cooler thing to do
By smoking with the cool people, you enter their social
circles
Marshmallow Test
If children delayed gratification by not eating a
marshmallow, they would get another one
Kids who ate them wouldn’t get another
Years after the test was done, it was found that the kids
who waited for a second marshmallow were more
successful in life than the ones who ate the
marshmallow right away
Sometimes a single behaviour doesn’t have a single
reinforcement
o Social Reinforcers
Pats on the back or compliments
Suggests you are a likeable person
Make you feel good about yourself
- Conditioning Complex Behaviours
o Punishments are not seen as the best way to change behaviour
o Example: Clockwork Orange
o Changing the way you dress in certain situations
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