Psych Lecture 4
•Watson: psychology is a natural science, whose domain is
restricted entirely on observable behaviour if you can see it, hear
it its there we are controlled by the environment
•Skinner: ex. If a solution works for one problem, we typically
use that solution again if a similar problem comes up operant
behaviour (radical behaviourism) same thing as instrumental
conditioning but it operates with the environment in such a way that
it produces consequences he explained the world as being
mechanistic, human destiny is a script, no free will.
•Thorndike: studied behaviour that is controlled by
consequences life is machine-like effect and cause he called
everything by consequences instrumental conditioning.
•Functionalism: behaviour is understood by functions, by roles
•William James: believed in idea of purpose, that all behaviour is
purposeful theory of emotions – I am sad because I am crying
the function of crying (behaviour) is to become sad cause =
crying, effect = sad.
•Gestalt psychology: unified whole reaction of science of
immediate experience psychologists ought to understand the
various aspects and parts of what dictates causality but also
continue with introspection.
•Scientific Method: approach used by psychologists to
SYSTEMATICALLY acquire knowledge and understanding about
behaviour and other phenomena of interest.
•Identify Research questions Formulate an explanation
specify a theory develop a hypothesis carry out
research select a research method collect data
•Designing an experiment
•Performing an experiment
•Evaluate hypothesis on the basis of the obtained data
•Reporting and generalizing a study
Psych Lecture 5
•Confounds: something else that can explain the effects, that we
have not yet considered
•Research: a systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new
•Operationalization: changing hypothesis into testable
procedure that can be measured and observed.