PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Behaviorism, Gestalt Psychology, Cognitive Revolution

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PSYA01 – Introduction to Psychology Part 1 Lecture 1.3
Lecture 4: Science and Therapy-Psychologies Recent Past
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Excellent observer of human behaviour, especially abnormal human behaviour
Interested in what caused someone to have disordered thinking
Believed in a medical model
oGo to a doctor, listen to your symptoms, and think of it as reflective as an
underlying cause (virus), relieve you of the symptoms and the disease
He thought that people told him about symptoms, but as a psychological virus
Example: Married man sees his wife with another man in their bedroom, the man sees
something that is not part of his usual routine and is in shock. He went blind.
oDefence mechanism: prevent you from consciously accepting what was
happening
oNo physiological causes
oFreud would say: the blindness is a symptom to protect you from your conscious
mind
Scientists hate this because there is no way to because there is no scientifically way to
test it
You can satisfy your needs (thirst, hunger) in an acceptable society, but sex and
aggression is different
Two different psychology:
oScientific Psychology: trying to understand how humans work (mind) by looking
at it
oClinically Psychology: asking the person “how are you feeling?”
The European Reaction to Psychology
Gestalt Psychology: trying to understand the laws underlying our amazing ability to
acquire and maintain stable percepts in a noisy world
The North American Reaction to Psychology
Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936), John B. Watson(1878-1958), B.F. Skinner(1904-1990)
Behaviourism
oShunned all discussion of any psychological concept that could not be directly
and objectively measured and/or manipulated
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