Rene descartes : humans are puppets , controlled by strings or machine , humans posses a soul and free will. John locke : first to say mind controls behaviour: empiricism = testing ideas, experimenting, attempting to understand learning , baby = learns thru experiences. James mill: he came up with materialism, states human no diff. Than animals just physical beings, joint by atoms. Johannes muller : first to study human anatomy, noticed basic msgs sent along the nerves was like a electrical impulse, therefore the message started somewhere and ended somewhere, discovered subunits of brain. Pierre florens : took out parts of the brain from animals to see what"s poppin. Paul broca : checked out stroke victims brain on death, exact same spot where there was dead brain tissue. Gustav fritsch & eduard hitzig : using wires to stimulate the brain, lightly electrifying different spots. Hermann von helmholtz : learnt speed of nerve impulses.