LECTURE 22: PERCEPTION (CHAPTER 7)
•According to a group of German Psychologists called Gestalt Psychologists, the primary
pur pose of the visual system is the recognition of objects from basic visual elements.
-They said what we perceive is much more than what is out there. These laws help us
interpret the world and understand t hings better than how they are seen.
•The objects are seen as more than a sum of the parts, and the critical problem facing the visual
system is how to group the elements to form objects.
•Several pr inciples, or laws, are used by the visual system to do this grouping
•Perception: how is the world according to you
•Local doesn’t interfere with the global - Global interferes substantially with local
decisions, but there is much less int erference of local on global decisions
-When elements are arranged in groups that define an object, we tend to see the object
and not the elements.
•Photographers focus on details and less on objects. Such as the colors and lighting (local
•The law of Proximity: Things that are relatively close to one another tend to be
grouped together. Items that look similar will be seen as parts of
the same form.
•The law of Good Continuation: tendency to perceive unseen
parts of patterns as continuing in a predictable and simple manner.
•The law of closure: an object is partly occluded by other objects in our
environment, and the visual system must fill in the missing information. LOOK AT THE
•The law of common fate: when someone moves we notice them. As someone walks
across the room, the body parts share a common fate (as they all move together)
-Elements of visual perception that move together are seen as forming a common
-This law is best imagined in terms of those animals you see on nature shows that
seem to perfectly blend into their background, until they move. Then suddenly they