PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Schizophrenia, Endangerment, Hypnosis
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Psychology Chapter 9 Lectures (Lecture 35-36)
Slide 2: Consciousness is the closest thing to the soul
Working memory is part of consciousness we have already learned.
Ex: ‘How many windows are there in your house?’ You will image the house and count the windows
inside your head, and you use your working memory. However, who counts the windows?
We think ourselves as relatively constant, but that isn’t fully the case- for example, you are different
from when you were 12, but both today and then are part of your self.
Materialists have considered control with consciousness, meaning that behavior is part of our own. Ex:
Criminals say that their behavior was caused by their upbringing, but not everyone believes that.
Freud talks about unconscious/consciousness. Most don’t believe the Freudian view.
Many of our behavior is considered habitual and becomes subconscious, but it’s not devious.
Slide 3: Conscious vs. unconsciousness-
The battle between coke and pepsi; when you buy pepsi time after time, you build a strong habit in
which your muscle memory will get you the pepsi without thinking about it. However, you have a
resolution to get coke from now on, but at the moment where you press the pepsi button, you should
remember the resolution or else you get captured by the habit.
Slide 4: sleep is in the altered state. All of these are consciousness
Slide 5: We can measure neural impulse, and compared to computer impulses, they are slower.
However, human are capable of doing more than the computer. Many question why that is, and some
answer that we have parallel distributing- the brain sends functions to multiple parts of the body at the
same time, while the computer does it one at a time. Except for the working memory (You can think
about anything at a given time, but you can only selectively attend to them).
Selective attention example- the professor looks at the student as people. People from the back of the
class would fully see laptops though, and those are distractions. How do you selectively attend to them?
Slide 6: Two words are intertwined, one word is written in grey, the other in red. Try to read only the red
words. When you do a bunch of trials, you will start attending to one word and ignore the other ones
and the other coloured word will disappear. This does not involve the visual system but the selective
Ex: you can listen to red hot chili pepper, and you can listen to only the frequency and remove the bass.
Slide 7: Mental resources are like financial resources, in which you make decision on what to spend your
attention to. You will devote energy on thinking, but can’t focus on every sensation. The idea of thinking
only one at a time is linked to sleeping.
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