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PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Vitreous Body, Corrective Lens, Sensory System

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Steve Joordens

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Psychology Lecture 21(Chapter 5)
Slide 28: technique to measure the memory system. Ex. A memory testing technique can refer to slide
24, but you occupy them for a short while after looking at the words, and then testing them on what
they remember on those cards.
Slide 29: For us humans, vision is one of the most reliable sensory system. However, for other animals
other sensory systems are a priority (ex. Reptiles sense vibrations, dogs learn using smell). Vision helps
see from a large distance, which allowed us to function well as physically inferior beings (as in, we can
attack from a distance using spears against more powerful animals).
Slide 30: The world that we perceive is not all that there is. We only see a part of the light spectrum.
Slide 31: Light enters the eyeball and into the retina, and the light is translated into neurosignals.
The pupil is surrounded by the iris, with a lens behind. The pupils dilates. When bright, the pupil shrinks,
but dilates when it gets darker. When dark, you will take time to get used to it and see more details,
because the iris (it’s actually a muscle to pulls the pupil) helps dilate the pupil.
A baby in the early days is trained to learn this dilation/contraction by repeatedly turning the lightson
and off.
The cornea can change shapes, and a lens can be inserted to help improve vision for misshaped eyes.
Squinting bends the lens to accommodate the focus on a distant object.
Reading glasses for older people are needed because in later years lens tend to dry out, getting harder.
The cornea is filled with a jelly-like substance (called vitreous humour ) that also provide nutrients to the
eye. It’s the floating stuff that you can sometimes see.
Slide 32: The pattern of light entering the eye is projected using the retina.
Slide 33: There are three sets of nerve cells. The rods and cones are photoreceptors, bipolar cells, then
ganglion cells and the final one is the optic nerve.
The light travels through the ganglion and bipolar without stimulating them, but reacts then with the
receptors, which pushes the light back to the first two and stimulates them.
Photoreceptors turn light into signals using electrochemical processes. The rods are used for black and
white light. Ex. When it’s dark, the cones deactivate, but the rods are still working. They are sensitive to
the strength of light, but not the wavelengths (as in colours).
Once there is enough energy coming in, the cones are activated, which are sensitive to colour and allow
for images to be more detailed. They are packed together in the center of the retina. All stuff around the
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