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Roshan Singh
Mr. Joordens
Chapter 11 Notes
IntelligenceThe general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information, to
recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive
Recently, psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural
3 dominant approaches to the study of intelligence:
Differential approachAn approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of
tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve
problems. Particularly those who use skills important in the classroom. These tests are important
to all of us because they are used to screen applicants to schools and candidates for jobs.
Developmental approachAn approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children
learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world. The most influential proponent of this
approach was the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.
Information processing approachAn approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the
types of skills people use to think and to solve problems.
Just because IQ is a single score does not itself mean that intelligence is a single general characteristic.
AQ example of whether after looking at the score we will be able to decide who would be a better skier,
basketball player etc.
3 theories of intelligence: 2-factor theory, information processing theory and neuropsychological theory.
Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is
determined by 2 factors:
gFactorAccording to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks;
includes apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates.
sFactorAccording to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task.
He defined gfactor as comprising three qualitative principles of cognition.
Apprehension of experience refers to people`s ability to perceive and understand what they experience.
Eduction of relations refers to the ability to perceive the relation. Eduction of correlates refers to the
ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case.
The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70. Thus, a person`s
score on a particular test depends on 2 things: the person`s specific ability on the particular test and his or
her level of the g factor, or general reasoning ability.

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Roshan Singh
Mr. Joordens
Chapter 11 Notes
Factor analysisA statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests.
Birren and Morrison (1961) administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The numbers in
the results were called factor loadings. They are somewhat like correlation coefficients in that they
express the degree to which a particular test is related to a particular factor. Verbal subsets make the most
contribution to factor A, so we might call it verbal ability or general intelligence as other tests make a
moderate contribution as well. Factor B is related to maintaining information in short-term memory and
manipulating numbers. A good name for factor C might be spatial ability.
Factor analysis can give clues but not provide a theory of intelligence. The names given to the factors are
up to the investigator and therefore include a degree of subjective judgement. Also, it can never be more
meaningful than the individual tests on which it is performed.
WAIS has been a useful predictor of scholastic performance and of vocational success.
Horn and Cattell (1966) called these 2nd order factors as fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
Cattell believes that fluid intelligence is closely related to a persons native capacity for intellectual
performance whereas crystallized intelligence is what a person accomplishes using their fluid intelligence.
Horn believes that both factors are learned but are also based on heredity. He says that fluid intelligence is
based on causal learning and crystallized intelligence is based on cultural, school-type learning.
Successful intelligenceAccording to Sternberg, the ability to effectively analyze and manage personal
strengths and weaknesses.
Analytic intelligenceAccording to Sternberg, the mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute
tasks; includes metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge acquisition components.
Metacomponents or transcending components are the processes by which people decide the nature of an
intellectual problem, select a strategy of solving it, and allocate their resources. Example: important
information from the text.
Performance components are the processes actually used to perform the task. Example: word recognition
and working memory.
Knowledge acquisition components are those that the person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting our
relevant information and integrating it with what he or she already knows.
Creative intelligenceAccording to Sternberg, the ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to
solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously.
According to Sternberg, tasks that use fluid intelligence demand novel approaches, whereas tasks that use
crystallized intelligence demand mental processes that have become automatic. Creative people are
willing to tolerate criticism and at least initial rejection of their new ideas. Creative people must know
when the time is right to press their ideas and when the time is right to move on to new ideas.

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Roshan Singh
Mr. Joordens
Chapter 11 Notes
Practical intelligenceAccording to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the behaviours that were subject
to natural selection: adaptation – fitting oneself into ones environment by developing useful skills and
behaviours; selection – finding ones own niche in the environment, and shaping – changing the
Sternberg argues that sociocultural and physical context have a strong impact on the development and
manifestation of practical intelligence.
People with damage to their frontal lobes are a strong example that supports Sternbergs argument in
terms of how practical intelligence is underrated is a very crucial part of intelligence.
From Gardner’s perspective, intelligences are situated within cultures. Intelligence are potentials that may
or may not be activated in the individual depending on the extent to which the individuals culture values
the expression of those potentials. He believes that each of the intelligence he identifies is the result of
evolution and has separate, unique, neuropsychological underpinnings.
The difference between Sternbergs practical intelligence and Gardners naturalist intelligence is that
Sternbergs practical intelligence is a quality broadly associated with practical abilities whereas Gardner
affords naturalist intelligence as its own independent status among other intelligences.
Syllogism A logical construction that contains a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. The
major and minor premises are assumed to be true, and the truth of the conclusion is to be evaluated by
deductive reasoning.
Several studies suggested that unschooled people in remote villages in various parts of the world were
unable to solve syllogistic problems. Scribner (1977) found exactly that with 2 tribes in Africa. Their
deductive reasoning ability is not necessarily inferior to ours; it is simply different.
All intelligence tests vary widely in reliability, validity and ease of administration.
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) was the most important early investigator of individual differences in
ability. He was strongly influenced by his cousin Charles Darwin, who stressed the importance of
inherited differences in physical and behavioural traits. Galton observed there were family differences and
concluded that intellectual abilities were heritable.
In 1884, he established the Anthropometric (human measuring) Laboratory at the International Health
Exhibition in London. His laboratory became a part of the Kensington Museum due to its resounding
success. The use of sensory discrimination fell into disfavour among subsequent researchers in the field of
intelligence, so the program did not continue after his death.
He outlined the logic of a measure he called correlation: the degree to which variability in one measure is
related to variability in another. Karl Pearson developed correlation coefficient from this. Galton also
developed the logic of twin studies and adoptive parent studies to assess the heritability of a human trait.
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