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PSYA02H3 (1,000)
Lecture

Chapter 18 – The Treatment of Mental Disorders (Notes)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 18 The Treatment of Mental Disorders
MENTAL DISORDERS AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
Early Treatment of Mental Disorders
·The earliest known attempts to treat mental disorders involved drilling holes in a
persons skull known as trephining; the opening was made to permit evil spirits to
leave the victims head
· Johann Wier was among the first to challenge practices intended to combat
witchcraft
oHe argued that they were suffering from mental illness, the church banned
his writings
·Pinel believed that patients would respond well to kind treatment; he undid their
chains and took them from the dungeons to walk the hospital freely and many were
discharged
·
The Development of Psychotherapy
·The modern treatment of mental disorders began with Mesmer who devised a theory
of magnetic fluxes, in which, he attempted to effect cures by manipulating iron
rods and bottles of chemicals
oIn reality he hypnotized his patients, alleviating some of their symptoms
·Freud created the practice of psychoanalysis
·Most therapists adopt a more general, eclectic approachthis involves the therapist
using whatever method they feel will work best for a particular client at a particular
time
INSIGHT THERAPIES
· Insight therapy view behaviour as a symptom of deeper underlying psychological
problems
oOnce a patient understands the cause of their problem, the problems—and
the maladaptive behaviourwill cease
· Insight therapies include a variety of treatments that emphasize talk between the
therapist and the client as a means of discovering the reasons for the clients
problems
Psychoanalysis and Modern Psychodynamic Approaches
·Freud is given credit for developing psychoanalysis—a form of therapy aimed at
providing the client with insight into their unconscious motivations and impulses
·By encouraging the client to talk, the analysts tries to bring these unconscious
conflicts into view
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oIt requires the analyst to interpret them and uncover their true meaning and
gradually weave together a complete picture of the unconscious
·The purpose of therapy is to create a setting in which clues about the origins of
intra-psychic conflicts are most likely to be revealed by the client (through dreams,
memory, manner of speech etc) and by then exposing the client to these clues, so they
will gain insight to the problem
·One of the main goals of the psychoanalyst is to interpret the clues about the origins
of intra-psychic conflict given by the client
oThe clients main job is to provide the analyst with something to interpret:
their fears, anxieties, thoughts, or repressed memories
Psychoanalytic Techniques
·Freud used free association to encourage the client to speak freely, without censoring
possible embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts
·He achieved this goal in two ways:
oFirst, the client was encouraged to report any thoughts or images that came
to the mind, without worrying about their meaning
oSecond, Freud attempted to minimize any authoritative influence over the
clients disclosures by eliminating eye contact
·Freud believed dreams were a crucial component
oDream interpretationthe evaluation of the underlying meaning of dream
content
oDreams have manifest (actual images and events that occur) and latent
content (the hidden meaning)
·Client becomes defensive at some point during therapy, unconsciously attempting to
halt further insight by censoring their true feelings—resistance
·Transferencewhen the client projects powerful attitudes and emotions onto the
therapist
oCounter-transferencewhen the therapist projects their emotions onto
client
Modern Psychodynamic Therapy
·Psychoanalysis is now referred to as psychodynamic therapy to reflect the difference
between the now and then therapies
·Contemporary therapists are more likely to address concerns and issues in the
clients present life than their childhood
·Modern psychodynamic therapists view the ego as playing a more active role in
influencing a persons thoughts and actions
·Present therapists believe much can be gained by shortening the process and
lessening the clients dependence on them, unlike Freud, who took years
Humanistic Therapy
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·The aim of humanistic theory is to provide the client with a greater understanding
of their potential for personal growth and self-actualization
·Humanistic theories proceed from the assumption that people are good and have
inborn worth
·The two major forms are client-centered and Gestalt therapy
Client-Centered Therapy
·Developed by Carl Rogers, client-centered therapy—client decides what to talk
about without direction or judgement from the therapist, the client takes ultimate
control for resolving their problems and the focus of the therapy is on the client not a
method or theory
·Rogers believed that the cause of many psychological problems can be traced to
peoples perceptions of themselves as they actually are (their real self) as differing
from the people they would like to be (their ideal self)incongruence
·The goal of client-centered therapy is to reduce incongruence; attaining their ideal
self
·Therapist strives to make thoughts, perceptions and feelings more noticeable to
client (reflection), demonstrating the ability to perceive the world from another
viewpoint (empathy)
·Unconditional positive regardthe therapist tries to convey to the client that
their worth as a human being is not dependent on anything they think, do or feel
Gestalt Therapy
·Gestalt therapy emphasizes the unity of mind and body by teaching the client to get
in touch with bodily sensations and emotional feelings long hidden from awareness
oPlaces exclusive emphasis son present experience not on the past, and the
therapist will often be quite confrontational, challenging the client to deal
honestly with their emotions
·Empty chair techniquethe client imagines that they are talking to someone sitting
in the chair beside them
·Gestalt theory encourages the client to gain a better understanding of their feelings
by talking to themselves or inanimate objects
Evaluations of Insight Therapies
·To participate in this kind of therapy, the client must be intelligence, articulate, and
motivated enough to spend three of more hours a week trying to uncover
unconscious conflicts
·Truax found that Rogers was reinforcing positive statements from his clients
BEHAVIOUR AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES
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