PSYA02H3 Lecture Notes - Sigmund Freud, Hypnosis, Psychodynamics

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6 Feb 2013
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PSYA02 Feb 4, 2013
Sigmund Freud (1856 1939)
Freud was the first psychologist that wasn‟t a scientist – he was a physiologist
o Trained as an expert observer shaped his later research
Was interested in ailments that seemed to have no physiological cause
o Extreme ailments but no medical cause
o Caused by mental issues
Worked with Charcot on hypnotism. Freud felt that this could cure psychological
problems but he later rejected this idea.
o Mesmer was first to use the „idea‟ of hypnotism. Originally, he wanted to
cure people via magnetism but it turns out that, for the people that felt
better, they weren‟t cured by the magnets but by Mesmer telling them that
the magnets would help. It was a placebo effect under the power of
suggestion.
Freud listened to people and then formed „stories‟ of the causes of their problems
o This was scientifically impossible to test/prove
Came to believe that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual desires that
provide psychic energy
o Psychic energy caused the issues
These drives could be unconscious as well as conscious
Psychodynamics
The manner in which our internal energies are released
determines our personalities
Psychic energy caused by sex/aggression
Freud thought that his three categories of
conscious/unconscious could have goals and desires
o Modern day scientists reject this
ID (Instinct)
This part was completely below our conscious awareness
It represents the animal side of humans it wants things and wants it right away
o However, this is not all bad. The ID is what motivates us to get stuff done.
Very primitive and very reactive
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