validity scales that assess a person’s attitudes toward test taking and any tendency to try to distort the
results by faking answers. Because no interpretation of the responses is needed, biases are minimized.
Responsse Style is the phenomenon where people provide honest response, especially about
characteristics that might be unflattering and if they don’t always agrees or always disagree.
Consist of a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner
aspects of an individual’s personality. People will project personality factors that are out of awareness
(IE: Wishes, concerns, impulses, ways of seeing the world) onto ambiguous stimuli and will not censor
these responses (IE: Cloud looked like a monster to her).
Rorschach Inkblot Test is when the individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured
inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent’s inner feelings and interpret his or her personality
structure. Critics argue that although the Rorschach captures some of the more complex and private
aspects of personality, the test is open to the subjective interpretation and theoretic biases of the
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is when the respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and
the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.
The test taker is thought to identify with the main characters and to project his or her view of others and
the world onto the other details in the drawing. Projective tests remain controversial in psychology.
Critics argue that such tests are open to the subjective interpretation and theoretic biases of the
examiner. Although a TAT story may seem revealing, the examiner must always add an interpretation.
Despite the rich picture of a personality and the insights into an individual’s motives that these tests
offer, projective tests should be understood primarily as a way in which a psychologist can get to know
someone personally and intuitively. When measured by rigorous scientific criteria, the TAT, like the
Rorschach and other projective tests, has not been found to be reliable or valid in predicting behavior.
In psychology, personality refers to a person’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and
Personality psychologists attempt to find the best ways to describe personality, to explain how
personalities come about, and to measure personality
Two general classes of personality tests are personality inventories, such as the MMPI-2, and
projective techniques, such as the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the TAT
THE TRAIT APPROACH: IDENTIFYING PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOUR
Personality is as a combination of traits. Although you still occasionally hear people speak in terms of
personality types, most psychologists now think it makes more sense to talk about personality traits. The
trait approach to personality uses such trait terms to characterize differences among individuals. In
attempting to create manageable and meaningful sets of descriptors, trait theorists face two significant
Narrowing down the almost infinite set of adjective
Answering the more basic question of why people have particular traits, whether they arise
from biological or hereditary foundations