PSYA02H3 Lecture Notes - In-Group Favoritism, Classical Conditioning

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Page:
of 3
ingroup and outgroups
○ flexible
ingroup bias (favouring)
comfort from familiarity with schemas
lack of bias towards outgroups
uncertainty towards reactions of others towards actions
(and vice versa)
discomfort can come out as fear
Sherief experiment
prejudice can be created in a way that has nothing to do with skin colour or
religion
more to do with how well you know people
leaving children isolated in each group
lack of interaction with the other group
prejudice is simple to create and build
ex. eye colour
prejudice is often based on ignorance
false stereotypes
reduction of prejudice is simple
creation of interaction between outgroup and ingroup
(happens almost immediately)
creation of common enemies
interactions with an outgroup
reduction of prejudicial behaviour and thoughts
incorrect stereotypes
lack of direct experience with groups
stereotypes are normally formed
meeting two or three similar ‘items’ from a group
prejudice is an attitude (to an extent)
attitude formation
How are attitudes formed (or reformed)?
study of how evaluations of people, places, or things are formed
forming impressions of others
central traits
some traits are more important than others
(in terms of organizing impressions of others)
ex. “warm” and “cold” over “polite” and “blunt”
primacy effect
importance of order with which we encounter traits
ex. negative traits listed first result in negative impressions
ex. positive traits listed first result in positive impressions
largest effect from earlier traits
first impressions are important
● attributions
important for forming impressions of others
distinction in formation of attributions
■ disposition
● internal
situation
● external
○ covariation
■ consensus
how would others behave
■ consistency
how an individual behaves on a daily basis
■ distinctiveness
behaviour in a certain situation compared to other situations
consensus and distinctiveness play a role in attribution formation
attitudes are not only cognitive
three levels
■ cognitive
■ affective
■ behavioural
cognitive level
beliefs and ideas
what somebody does or rationally thinks
affective level
emotions and feelings
what you do
vicarious or direct classical conditioning
mere exposure
● behavioural
predispositions to act
what you actually do
not always consistent with stated cognitive stance
opinions are thought as of rational things that one comes to
attitude change
central route to persuasion
changes people’s minds with rational information
people have to have the motivation and ability to pay attention
peripheral route to persuasion
changes people’s minds through emotions through affective level
lacks rational reasons and gives emotional reasons
ex. advertisements
people do not require the motivation or ability to pay attention

Document Summary

Uncertainty towards reactions of others towards actions. Prejudice can be created in a way that has nothing to do with skin colour or religion. More to do with how well you know people. Lack of interaction with the other group. Prejudice is simple to create and build. Creation of interaction between outgroup and ingroup. Meeting two or three similar items" from a group. Prejudice is an attitude (to an extent) Study of how evaluations of people, places, or things are formed. Some traits are more important than others. (in terms of organizing impressions of others) Importance of order with which we encounter traits. Ex. negative traits listed first result in negative impressions. Ex. positive traits listed first result in positive impressions. How an individual behaves on a daily basis. Behaviour in a certain situation compared to other situations. Consensus and distinctiveness play a role in attribution formation. Not always consistent with stated cognitive stance.