PSYA02 - Chapter 15.docx

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Page:
of 13
Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Treatment: Getting Help to Those Who Need It
- the personal costs of the disorders involve anguish to the sufferers as well as
interference in their ability to carry on the activities of daily life
Why People Cannot or Will Not Seek Treatment
- people may fail to get treatment because of 3 major problems:
1. People may not realize that their disorder needs to be treated:
=> the origin of mental illness is “hidden” and usually cannot be
diagnosed by a blood test
=> some people believe that mental illness is a sign of personal
weakness or that people suffering from are not trying hard enough to
help themselves
2. There may be barriers to treatment, such as beliefs and circumstances
that keep people from getting help:
=> in some cases, families discourage their loved ones from seeking
help because the public acknowledgment of a psychological disorder
may be seen as an embarrassment to the family
=> there may be financial obstacles
=> barriers may even arise from treatment providers or facilities
themselves, such as long waiting lists, etc
3. Even people who acknowledge they have a problem may not know
where to look for services:
=> even when people seek and find help, they sometimes do not
receive the most effective treatments
=> before choosing or prescribing a therapy, we need to know what
kinds of treatments are available and understand which treatments
are best for particular disorders
Approaches to Treatment
- Treatments can be divided into 2 kinds:
-> psychotherapy, in which a person interacts w/ a psychotherapist
-> mental or biological treatments, in which the mental disorder is treated
w/ drugs or surgery
Psychological Therapies: Healing the Mind through Interaction
- PSYCHOTHERAPY => is an interaction b/w a therapist and someone suffering
from a psychological problem, w/ the goal of providing support or relief from the
problem
- each approach to psychotherapy is unique in its goals, aims and methods
- ECLECTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY => a form of psychotherapy that involves drawing
on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the
problem
- this allows the therapists to apply an appropriate theatrical perspective that is
suited to the problem at hand rather than adhering to a single theatrical perspective
for al clients and all types of problems
Psychodynamic Therapy
- PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHOTHERAPIES => explore childhood events and
encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their
psychological problems
- there are a number of different psychodynamic therapies, but they all share the
belief that the path to overcoming psychological problems is to develop insight into
the unconscious memories, impulses, wishes, and conflicts that are assumed to
underlie these problems
Psychoanalysis
- psychoanalysis assumes that humans are born w/ aggressive and sexual urges that
are repressed during childhood development through the use of defense
mechanisms
- psychoanalysts encourage their clients to bring these repressed conflicts into
consciousness so that the clients can understand them and reduce their unwanted
influences
How to Develop Insight
- a psychoanalyst uses several key techniques to develop insight:
Free Association:
- in free association, the client reports every thought that enters the mind, w/o
censorship or filtering
- this strategy allows the stream of consciousness to flow unimpeded
Dream Analysis:
- psychoanalysts treat dreams as metaphors that symbolize unconscious conflicts or
whishes that contain disguised clues that the therapist can help the client
understand
Interpretation:
- this is the process by which the therapist deciphers the meaning underlying what
the client says and does
- during the process of interpretation, the analyst suggests possible meaning to the
client, looking for signs that the correct meaning has been discovered
- but its not that easy
- the analyst could overinterpret the client’s thoughts and emotions and sometimes
even contribute interpretations that are far from the truth
Analysis of Resistance
- in the process of “trying on” different interpretations of the client’s thoughts and
actions, the analyst might suggest an interpretation that the client finds
unacceptable
- RESISTANCE => reluctance to cooperate w/ treatment for fear of confronting
unpleasant unconscious material
- if a client always shifts the topic to discussion away from a particular idea, that
might signal to the therapist that this is indeed an issue the client could be directed
to confront in order to develop insight
The Process of Transference
- TRANSFERENCE => occurs when the analyst begins to assume a major significance
in the client’s life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious
childhood fantasies
- successful psychoanalysis involves analyzing the transference so that the client
understands this reaction and why it occurs
- insight, may be enhanced because interpretations of the client’s interaction w/ the
therapist also have implications for the client’s past and future relationships
Beyond Psychoanalysis
- modern psychodynamic theory reflects the contributions of many people who
followed Freud
- Carl Jung and Alfred Adler agreed w/ Freud that insight was a key therapeutic
goal but disagreed that insight involves unconscious conflicts about sex and
aggression
- Jung emphasized what he called the collective unconscious, the culturally
determined symbols and myths that are shared among all people
- Adler believed that emotional conflicts are the results of perceptions of inferiority
and that psychotherapy should help people overcome problems resulting from
inferior social status, sex roles and discrimination
- Melanie Klein believed that primitive fantasies of loss and persecution were
important factors underlying mental illness
- Karen Horney disagreed w/ Freud about inherent differences in the psychology of
men and women and traced such differences to society and culture rather than
biology
- INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOTHERAPY (IPT) => a form of psychotherapy that
focuses on helping clients improve current relationships
- therapists using IPT try to focus treatment on the person’s interpersonal behaviors
and feelings

Document Summary

Chapter 15 treatment of psychological disorders: people may not realize that their disorder needs to be treated: Treatment: getting help to those who need it. The personal costs of the disorders involve anguish to the sufferers as well as interference in their ability to carry on the activities of daily life. Why people cannot or will not seek treatment. People may fail to get treatment because of 3 major problems: Treatments can be divided into 2 kinds: even people who acknowledge they have a problem may not know where to look for services: => even when people seek and find help, they sometimes do not receive the most effective treatments. => before choosing or prescribing a therapy, we need to know what kinds of treatments are available and understand which treatments are best for particular disorders. => the origin of mental illness is hidden and usually cannot be diagnosed by a blood test.