Lecture 2

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18 Jan 2011
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Psychology Lecture 2
-language can be broken down into
1) Sentences
2) Phrases
3) Words
4) Morphemes
5) Phonemes
Phoneme
-phoneme is the smallest unit of sound
-letter sound
-not meaningful
-production of phoneme begins with column of air
-produced by air pressure that sends air out of the mouth
-vocal cord produces voicing
Phoneme p/b
-p and b sounds are bilabial plosives
-plosives means explosion in sound
-lip is involved to produce the phonemes
-hold the pressure with the lip and release it to create an explosion
-tongue is at rest and is not involved in the production
Difference between phoneme p/b
-differs in the time the vocal cord produces voicing (onset of vocal cord vibration)
-voicing is about 0.6 second earlier in b phoneme production than that of p
Phoneme s/z
-s and z sounds are alveolar fricative
-putting tongue up the alveolar area (front teeth)
-fricative means friction sound
-s phoneme does not involve vocal cord vibration
-z phoneme requires vocal cord vibration
-there are 40 phonemes in English, but only 26 letters to represent
-letter depends on the context to produce different sounds
Morpheme
-smallest unit of meaning, including suffix and prefix
Lexicon
-root word in the vocabulary
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