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Lecture 4

Course Code
John Bassili

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Psychology Lecture 4
-Washoe’s performance is not an act of language because it is a complicated process to teach him
the symbols and their meanings
-while human can learn language at an early age effortlessly
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study
-measures the active area in brain when a human is engaged in speaking
-scanner of the brain
-advantage that X-ray does not have is it can produce image of soft tissue whereas X-ray can
only produce image of bone
-in this case, the rhyming (similarity in sound) task
-male has active localization in the left hemisphere
-female has some active localization in both left and right hemisphere
-fMRI measures the depletion of oxygen in the blood
-brain sends a signal to the cardiovascular system to send oxygenated blood to brain region that
involves in activity during the task
-when people are outputting rhyme, more oxygenated blood is sent in a particular region when it
is not engaged in activity
-colour shown in the picture of the brain is symbolic, the brain does not actually light up during
the task
-fMRI relies on blood oxygenated level dependence, which is also the response of the people
Pros and Cons of fMRI
-good with spatial resolution
-can look deeply in the brain
-not good with tempo resolution
-cannot track fraction of the second of the brain’s activity
-technology that involves electrode that picks up small current at the surface of the skull for
-pros and cons of EEG
-less expensive
-quick with tempo resolution
-not good with localization of brain
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
-inject isotope as tracer in the body
-use scanner to pick up where blood is going
Wernicke’s area
-responsible for sound signal
-recognize sequence of sound and interpretation of meaning of phoneme
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