Lecture Notes with Powerpoint References

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8 Feb 2011

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Chapter 12 Life-Span Development February 2
Piaget and Education
Piaget emphasizes on spontaneous discovery, individual exploration, children
accommodating to the world
Little emphasis on communication, individual discovery is encouraged
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Vygotsky found that communication, social interaction is important in development
Zone of proximal development – a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone,
but can do with help of more skilled partners (i.e. with communication, the child would
be able to learn)
Vygotsky and Education
The main difference between a Piagetian and a Vygotskian classroom is that the latter
promotes assisted discovery
Scaffolding – adjusting the support offered during teaching to fit the child’s current level
of performance
Peer collaboration – teachers group together classmates of different abilities and
encourage them to help each other (i.e. discussion forums in PSYA02)
ADHD: Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder
Professionals have grouped disorders into ADHD
Principal symptoms: inattention (can’t focus on tasks), hyperactivity, impulsivity (can’t
control themselves very well)
Causes: does not stem from the home environment or excessive sugar consumption, runs
in families so there is a genetic component, imaging studies suggests underactivity in
certain areas of the brain (i.e. kids with the disorder are less active in certain areas of the
(frontal) brain)
They are criticized because they say things without regarding others feelings
They cannot adjust energy levels (i.e. from recess to class time)
They lack attention span
Social Development: Attachment
Attachment to the caregiver from young children is an essential process in social
development (attachment runs across species)
Separation and Stranger Anxiety
Separation anxiety – refers to the fearful response that infants of 6 to 15 months typically
exhibit when the primary caregiver leaves or attempts to leave it
Stranger Anxiety – infants between 6 and 12 months act wary and sometimes fearful, in
the presence of strangers (i.e. non-primary giver holding baby makes him/her cry)
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