Lecture 2 (first real lecture)

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1 Mar 2011

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Saad Imran Page 1
Lecture 2
Chapter 10 t Language
x Building Blocks of Language:
o ^dZoÇol}Z(v_
o Letters
o Wait prof is talking but not using letters, written lang is letters
o Not everyone can read/write but everyone can speak
x Spoken Language building blocks
o Phonemes smallest sounds in spoken language
Smallest units of sounds language composed of
Da pl ey ar z tak t tuw da f a n z
o Morphemes smallest units of meaning in language
The play er s talk ed to the fan s
Smaller than words
o Words
The players talked to the fans
o Phrases
(The players ) (talked to the fans)
x Phonemes
o The smallest significant units of sound in a language
o How do we produce sounds?
o Energy taken, have to produce something
o Column of air originating from lungs
Air pressure that goes out of mouth
Column of air contains sound waves
o Vocal chords produce voicing but not only ones involved, lips, lungs involved toungue
o P and b / pa and ba
Bilabial Plosives
Both lips involved (bilabial) Explosion involved (plosives)
Differ (pa/ba) in one small characteristics at what point your vocal chords
produce voicing
In case of ba our voicing starts .06 seconds earlier than pa
Tongue is low down in mouth, not doing much
o S and z
Alveolar Fricatives
Tongue up on alveolar ridge upper teeth (alveolar) Friction sound (fricatives)
Vocal chords different, touch throat for s no vibration, touch throat for z
vibrates thats only difference
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