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Lecture 3

PSYA02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Factor Analysis, Martha Graham, Sigmund Freud

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Dwayne Pare

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PSYA02 – Lecture 3 - Where does intelligence come from?
Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Having an understanding of cards can change the way you look at the symbols
Are some things not meant to be studies scientifically?
Debate surrounding That may not have any real life merit but are only used to fuel things
like hate, depression etc.
There are tons of cultural bias factors (such as language) that are implemented into tests
oStudents taken from Harlem and in rich areas were tested and found that cultural
factors hindered students in Harlem
The role of genetics
Intelligence may be an underlying factor in genetics
Nature AND nurture
oNature being the genetic aspect and nurture being the environment
oStudy has been done on rats that were born out of dull and bright parents. It can
be seen that rats descended from dull rats made more mistakes than rats
descended from bright rats
oBoth bright and dull rats made mistakes in restricted areas (the environment
affected the results of the rats)
oThis test shows the genetic potential to underlie parents
So what about racial differences?
Is Intelligence even a single thing?
We often use the term intelligence as if we were talking bout a single characteristic a
person possesses, we typically talk of someone being intelligent or not. Period.
But let’s consider another “characteristic” for a moment… Athletic capability. We could
ask someone to perform a number of tasks and based on their performance, come up
with a measure of athletic ability
What would you expect if you did this? Would the person with the best athletic ability be
the fastest runner?
General Intelligence
The idea that general intelligence (g) exists comes from the work of Charles Spearman (1863-
1945) who helped develop the factor analysis approach in statistics
Thurstone Seven
Some studies using the factor analytic approach ended up finding many different factors related
to intelligence. For example, Thurstone (1938) found 7 factors; verbal comprehension, verbal
fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning and perceptual speed.
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