Class Notes (905,618)
CA (538,472)
UTSC (32,636)
Psychology (7,991)
PSYA02H3 (1,057)
John Bassili (120)
Lecture

Chapter 10 notes!

5 Pages
77 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Chapter 10: Language
Languages: flexible systems that use symbols to express many meanings.
Plays a key role in day-to-day communication.
Psycholinguistics: branch of psychology focusing on the study of verbal behaviour (how
children acquire language).
Perception of Speech:
It does not come to us in series of individual words; we must extract the words from a
stream of speech.
Auditory system enables us to recognize speech sounds.
The left hemisphere of the brain plays a large role in speech recognition.
Phonemes: elements of speech (smallest units of sounds that allow us to distinguish
the meaning of a spoken word).
Example: pin includes: /p/ + /i/ + /n/
Voice-onset time: delay between the initial sound of a consonant (/p/) and the onset
sound of vibration of the vocal cords.
Example: /p/ and /b/, and /t/ and /d/
Left auditory cortex specialize in recognizing the special aspects of speech. Latter
regions of auditory cortex rely on information that transcends the distortions of individual
phonemes.
Ganong found that the perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow
it.
Phonemes are combined to form morphemes (smallest units of meaning in
language).
Example: fastest contains two morphemes /fast/ (free morpheme which has its own
meaning) and /ist/ which is a bound morpheme.
Morphemes are important component in language.
In addition to learning the units of speech, we also learn its content.
Context affects the perception of words through top-down processing.
Understanding the Meaning of Speech:
If we want a listener to understand our speech, we must follow the rules of
language.
All languages have syntax or grammar
Syntactical rule is a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining
words to form phrases, clauses, and sentences.
fMRI studies have shown that as syntax gets more complex, our brains become more
active.
Syntax rules are learned implicitly.
Syntactical cues are signalled by word order, word class, function and content words,
affixes, word meanings, and prosody.
Word order is important in English.
Word class refers to the grammatical categories (noun, pronoun, verb, adjective).
1
www.notesolution.com
Function words include determiners, quantifiers, prepositions, and words in
similar categories: a, the, to, some, and, but, when, and so on.
Function words express the relation between content words
Content words include nouns, verbs, and most adjectives and adverbs: apple, rug,
went, caught, heavy, mysterious, thoroughly, sadly.
Content words express meaning.
Affixes are sounds that we add to the beginning (prefixes) or end (suffixes) of words
to alter their grammatical function.
Semantics provide important cues to the syntax of a sentence. They provide
meanings and the study of the meanings represented by words.
Prosody refers to the use of stress, rhythm, and changes in pitch that accompany
speech.
Noam Chomsky suggested that newly formed sentences are represented in the brain
in terms of their meaning
Deep structure represents the kernel of what the person intended to say.
In order to say the sentence, the brain must transform the deep structure into the
appropriate surface structure: the particular form the sentence takes.
Language disorder known as conduction aphasia have difficulty repeating words
and phrases, but they can understand them. Thus, they can retain the deep structure, but
not surface structure, of other peoples speech.
Schank and Abelson suggested that this knowledge is organized into scripts, which
specify various kinds of events and interactions that people have witnesses or have
learned about from others.
Script: the characteristics (events, rules, so on) that are typical of a particular
situation; assists the comprehension of verbal discourse.
Brain Mechanisms of verbal behaviour:
Motor association cortex in the left frontal lobe (Brocas area) disrupts the ability to
speak: It causes Brocas aphasia a language disorder characterized by slow, laborious,
non-fluent speech.
Brocas area contains motor memories, in particular memories of the sequences of
music movements that are needed to articulate words.
Talking requires very sophisticated motor control mechanisms.
Damage to the lower left frontal lobe (including Brocas area) disrupts the ability to
articulate words; this region is the most likely candidate for the location of these
programs. This region is located just in front of the part of the primary motor
cortex that controls the muscles used for speech.
Damage to brocas area produces agrammatism: loss of the ability to produce or
comprehend speech that employs complex syntactical rules.
It disrupts patients’ ability to use grammatical information, including word order, to
decode the meaning of a sentence.
Damage to Brocas area affects a hierarchy of language functions, leading to
difficulty in sequencing the muscles of speech that produces articulation problems.
Patients with damage to Brocas area had damage in an area within the frontal
cortex, region known as insula.
2
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 10: Language Languages: flexible systems that use symbols to express many meanings. Plays a key role in day-to-day communication. Psycholinguistics: branch of psychology focusing on the study of verbal behaviour (how children acquire language). Perception of Speech: It does not come to us in series of individual words; we must extract the words from a stream of speech. Auditory system enables us to recognize speech sounds. The left hemisphere of the brain plays a large role in speech recognition. Phonemes: elements of speech (smallest units of sounds that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word). Example: pin includes: p + i + n Voice-onset time: delay between the initial sound of a consonant (p) and the onset sound of vibration of the vocal cords. Example: p and b, and t and d Left auditory cortex specialize in recognizing the special aspects of speech. Latter regions of auditory cortex rely on information that transcends the distortions of individual phonemes. Ganong found that the perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it. Phonemes are combined to form morphemes (smallest units of meaning in language). Example: fastest contains two morphemes fast (free morpheme which has its own meaning) and ist which is a bound morpheme. Morphemes are important component in language. In addition to learning the units of speech, we also learn its content. Context affects the perception of words through top-down processing. Understanding the Meaning of Speech: If we want a listener to understand our speech, we must follow the rules of language. All languages have syntax or grammar Syntactical rule is a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. fMRI studies have shown that as syntax gets more complex, our brains become more active. Syntax rules are learned implicitly. Syntactical cues are signalled by word order, word class, function and content words, affixes, word meanings, and prosody. Word order is important in English. Word class refers to the grammatical categories (noun, pronoun, verb, adjective). 1 www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit