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PSYA02H3 Lecture Notes - Deep Structure And Surface Structure, Aphasia

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Steve Joordens

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Lecture 2
Language allows us to get the contents of our working memory out of our heads AND into the heads
of others.
It spans place and time and dates back to the earliest instances of time in which sounds and actions
were made to communicate with others.
Language allows us to share our working memory with one another.
Some animals may believe to have working memory but not an effective form of communicating
their memory.
Language is the glue that allows humans to create their social boundaries by communicating with
one another.
The history behind languages seems to possess a bias towards the Roman and Greek empires.
For example the Egyptians haven't been accredited with the creation of advanced communication
because their history has been lost over time. Regardless of the fact that they may or may not have
discovered it first.
Are humans the only ones with real language? Probably.
Videos: It seems as though dogs, and chimps seem to be the closest groups to establishing
They are very unique creatures.
Neural Underpinnings
We used to view ourselves as spirits in a spiritual world.
We believed that human behaviour was closely linked to religion.
THEN: Maybe there is a soul, maybe there is a body.
THEN: People argued that we may not even have a soul.
FINALLY: We were led to have proper reason to inspect what humans were after we acknowledged
the fact that humans possessed a soul and a body separately.
The brain is the center of the body and the soul and creates language.
The media over exaggerates the differences in the left and right hemisphere.
The language sector of the brain IS in fact biased towards the left hemisphere of the brain but not
Aphasia: Is in respect to recognizing speech.
Speech is a stream and the syntax in which it is demonstrated. Role of context in general; surface
versus deep structure.
In language there are no spaces or strings, it is merely a stream and whether one is able to follow it
should determine how well versed they are in language.
When listening to intelligent speech the blue area is most active [Slide 6, Joordens, Figure 1]
If this part of the brain is damaged then that means the person will have trouble understanding
intelligent speech.
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