Lecture 19 - Chapter 15 [ social psychology ]
Inf luence is direct form of pressure
Subtle like things that are in our head, should I watch tv or study, image of dad comes ‘ you must study’
If all were standing in an elevator facing the wall, the other one to come in would do so also; this i s social influence
Social Influence: changes in our behavi our that occur as a result of direct or indirect intervention of others
-used in very clever ways; sales people often have to rely on creative techniques [ not being very honest ]
-con artists persuade people to give them money using techniques which involve ‘a tale’, modeling, reinforcement,
Low Ball Technique: salesperson quotes an unusually low price [ you agree to buy it at that price ]
- comes up with a reason to change the price, this removing the reason you decided to buy
option no included
manager says we would be losing money
trade in re-appraised lower
-You tend to go with the deal
- shopping for a new car; how much for the par ticular car. $19 000, looks good, ill be back. Shopping for a better
deal, so you go to another. Go to a third dealer, 17 000, finally a dealer giving you a good price, g reat we can deal.
By giving you a low ball/ low price, that third dealer has taken you out of t he traffic. First challenge, get you as a
consumer for t hem to deal with them.
something happens, they throw a low ball and raise the price.
they say quoted with minimal upgrades
when the advantage of 17 000 is removed, people are more likely t o take that purchase
- one for m of commitment is already there; despite the deceit
- you start getting committed to the idea that you’re going to buy from this person;
Car sales: Consumer repor ts: the fi rst to notice the low ball technique
-for a few of 20-30 dollars, someone will sell you a report of t he invoice price of a car [ what the dealer paid it for ]
Buying a house
- when people make an offer, t hey start moving the fur niture in.
you tend to stick to the house whether you want it initially or not because ‘furniture is already in’ and
inf luence you to get it
-’ tri cks of the trades’
1] never appear anxious wor ri ed or desperate, stay calm and casual and willing to walk away
2] never negotiate down from the sticker price; always negotiate up from the invoice price (anchor and adjust) go in
knowing the invoice price
3] whoever speaks first after the offer is made, loses
4] never negotiate against yourself
5] always raise your thing in small increments
Size of majority: as t he number of people in the majority increase, the more likely one is to confrom. The
relationship is not linear though. There is a point [ 4 or 5 people] where adding more people to the majority no
longer increases the conformity rate.
Unanimity: we are less likely to conform when there is another person who deviates from the majority [whether or
not the deviant agrees with our opinion]
- if there is a single person in the group that gets the r ight answer, breaking of the unanimity, the person did two
things, went against it and support to the subjects all impression of the answer
Commitment: the more committed we are to our opinion, the less likely we are to conform.
Outcome dependence( desire to be liked): people want to ‘f i t i n’ and avoid the negative aspect of being rejected or
Infor mation dependence(the desire to be right): people turn to others for guidance, especially when they are