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Lecture

Lecture 22 Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Lecture 22
Nonverbal communication: things communicated outside language encoding ; things we do, tone at which we say
something;reading between the lines
-verbal : can be done orally, or written
Dyadic Conversation: conversations involving two people; t hey normally have a structure that fol lows an A-B-A-B for m;
each person takes a turn at speaking then listening
- speaker tends to look away, listener look s ;; turn t aking event
- prior to giving up the f loor, the speaker looks at the listener indicating that its their turn
- in anticipation of turn t aking, the listener wil l l ook away and t hen start talking
- visual behaviour indicates tur ning tables; hes re ady to give up the f loo r to the listener; signals to listener to start getting
ready to talk
- why does speaker look away? Handing the more diff icult role in terms of cognitive resources, have to decide on meaning,
deep st r ucture, and words they are going to produce, t akes effor t, need to concentrate into smooth production of speech
want to avoid distraction; that’s why speakers tend to look away from speakers quite a bit
- individual dependency; we dont really know how or why we do it t he way we do it
Things people do when Communicating
- emblems: nonverbal gestures that have specific defini tions within a given culture such as theok’ sign, head nods, shr ugs,
winks and finger wags
-illustrators: nonverbal gestures which do not have any meaning, but are used to suppl ement and emphasize speech.
Illustrators include hand wavi ng and finger snapping while speaking; improvised and add to speech and communication
-backchannel communication: while listening people usually make comments like ’yes and ‘right at appropriate moments
in the conversation ;
cannot become speaker wit h out the person saying uh huh mmhm yea yea ; can become distracting and annoying
to the speaker;
useful in guiding in communication;
people asked about how t he movie was; one set t hat had back channel and one that had none
 descriptions were not as good compared to when there was back channel communication ;; however
has to be tailored with conversation and synchronized
Affinitive confli ct theory
- every social interaction is characterized with an appropriate level of intimacy
- different when it comes to fr iends, relationships, and random people
-there are many behaviours that we engage in t hat are relevant to or express intimacy
- according to Argyle, every dyadic interaction has an appropriate level of i ntimacy
- many behaviours inf luence the level of intimacy expressed in an interaction:
distance between people
topic of the conversation
amount of smiling
amount of eye contact
Intimacy Equilibrium
- people will adjust all the intimacy behaviours to attain the right level of intimacy for an interaction
- if the person you are talking to is pushed towards you in a crowded situation, the intimacy of the interaction increases. This
may make you uncomfortable, so you m ay engage i n a behaviour to decrease the intimacy [ reduce eye cont act or stop
smiling]
- when equilibrium is disrupted, we fell discomfor t and are motivated to re-establish it
- distance is so closed up; intimacy shoots up you change a behaviour that you can change and compensate for the othe r
intimacy behaviour that shot up
-theory has been challenged: you go out on a date and having dinner, the person youre with l eans towards you and holds
hands ; equilibrium has gone wild here.. Theory says you do the opposite;; wrong.. You usually do the same in response
- argyle says, every interaction has an appropriate level of intimacy ; can change when there is mutual consent
The stare as a threat Display
- many animal species use staring as a for m of threat. Does the same apply to humans?
- a confederate dr iving a scooter stared at another driver at a red light. Did the dr iver cross the inters ection faster when t he
light turned green?
stared at : 5.3 seconds
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Description
Lecture 22 Nonverbal communication: things communicated outside language encoding ; things we do, tone at which we say something; reading between the lines -verbal : can be done orally, or written Dyadic Conversation: conversations involving two people; they normally have a structure that follows an A-B-A-B form; each person takes a turn at speaking then listening - speaker tends to look away, listener looks ;; turn taking event - prior to giving up the floor, the speaker looks at the listener indicating that its their turn - in anticipation of turn taking, the listener will look away and then start talking - visual behaviour indicates turning tables; hes ready to give up the floor to the listener; signals to listener to start getting ready to talk - why does speaker look away? Handing the more difficult role in terms of cognitive resources, have to decide on meaning, deep structure, and words they are going to produce, takes effort, need to concentrate into smooth production of speech want to avoid distraction; thats why speakers tend to look away from speakers quite a bit - individual dependency; we dont really know how or why we do it the way we do it Things people do when Communicating - emblems : nonverbal gestures that have specific definitions within a given culture such as the ok sign, head nods, shrugs, winks and finger wags -illustrators nonverbal gestures which do not have any meaning, but are used to supplement and emphasize speech. Illustrators include hand waving and finger snapping while speaking; improvised and add to speech and communication -backchannel communication : while listening people usually make comments like yes and right at appropriate moments in the conversation ; cannot become speaker with out the person saying uh huh mmhm yea yea ; can become distracting and annoying to the speaker; useful in guiding in communication; people asked about how the movie was; one set that had back channel and one that had none
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