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PSYA02H3 (1,057)
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Lecture

Chapter 17 Lecture Notes + Slides

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 17: Nature and causes of Mental Disorders
Mental Disorders: hard for the individual to control his behaviour and adapt in the
society
oDSM-IV is a manual used to classify mental disorders
oAxis I: focus on mental disorder
oAxis II: focuses on personality disorders
oSimpler classification: non-scientific classification of mental disorders
Neurosis: Excessive unreasonable emotion without loss of contact
with reality
Anxiety
Phobia
Obsession
Depression
Psychosis: severe disturbance of thought and emotion with loss of
contact with reality (schizophrenia)
Hallucination
Paranoia
Delusion
oAnxiety: an emotion like fear. Experienced in anticipation of danger
Agoraphobia: fear of open space. Fear of being alone in a public
space.
Accompanied by panic attacks.
oIntense fear and discomfort
Feel safe only at home, and must bring companion when going
outside
They feel well only when they think they are in control
www.notesolution.com
Caffeine has panic attack symptoms
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: excessive worry that leads to
significant distress or impairment in occupational or social
functioning. Not focused on panic attacks
Have nightmares and sleeping problems
Drink and depend on sleeping pills
Free flowing anxiety
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A pervasive pattern of
disturbing, unwanted thoughts accompanied by repeated behaviours.
Obsessive with a behaviour. Have to do it on a daily basis.
Worry about contamination
Individual performs behaviour repeatedly
Conscious of the irrational behaviour
Hypochondrasis: persistent exaggerated fear that one is suffering
from a physical illness
Worry about health
Excessive fear of illness
Always think there is something wrong with them even
if the doctor says they are fine
Causes of Anxiety Disorders:
Stressful life event
oHypersensitive to cue that triggers the past event
Childhood adversity
oWorry about dangers as a child
Attachment style
oInsecure relationship
www.notesolution.com
Learning mechanism
oDevelop a fear after bad experience
Cognition
oWay a person thinks
Biology
oBrain chemistry, and high heritability
Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
Medication:
oBenzodiazepines: effective way to reduce anxiety in
early stage
oSRI (serotonin reuptake inhibitor):
neurotransmitter relevant to mood in anxiety. Controls
depression
Psychotherapy:
oCognitive behavioural therapy: patient is thaught to
relize and avoid catastrophic thinking
oSystem desensitization (exposure with relaxation):
work to get patient to be relaxed when object of fear
comes closer
oPsychoanalysis: find out causes of anxiety in the sub
conscious
oDissociative Disorders: loss of integrated connection of identity, memory
and consciousness.
Split personality
Patient was upset though childhood too
Repression of the upsetting character, Try to find the cause of
the upsetting character
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 17: Nature and causes of Mental Disorders Mental Disorders: hard for the individual to control his behaviour and adapt in the society o DSM-IV is a manual used to classify mental disorders o Axis I: focus on mental disorder o Axis II: focuses on personality disorders o Simpler classification: non-scientific classification of mental disorders Neurosis: Excessive unreasonable emotion without loss of contact with reality Anxiety Phobia Obsession Depression Psychosis: severe disturbance of thought and emotion with loss of contact with reality (schizophrenia) Hallucination Paranoia Delusion o Anxiety: an emotion like fear. Experienced in anticipation of danger Agoraphobia: fear of open space. Fear of being alone in a public space. Accompanied by panic attacks. o Intense fear and discomfort Feel safe only at home, and must bring companion when going outside They feel well only when they think they are in control www.notesolution.com
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