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Lecture

For lectures 27-31 on chapter 17, video notes included, lecture 32 not included

16 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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PSYA02
Chapter 17 – The Nature and Causes of
Psychological Disease
Lecture 27
Slide 2: Classifying Mental Disorders
There is a wide variety of psychological disorders.
Classifying them is a prerequisite to organized
diagnosis and treatment.
The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) is the most
commonly used classification scheme.
Slide 3: Simpler Classification: a less technical way of
classifying mental disorders is in terms of: Neurosis:
excessively irrational negative emotionality without
loss of contact with reality; i.e. someone who responds
with excessive anger, or anxiety in a situation,
preventing them from functioning easily and happily
-Anxiety, phobia, obsession, depression
Psychosis: severe disturbance of thought and
emotion with loss of contact with reality
(schizophrenia); their mental space is not driven by
what most people would consider to be reality
-Hallucination, paranoia, delusion
Slide 4: Anxiety: an emotion that is experienced in
anticipation of danger. (like fear, but fear is experienced
www.notesolution.com
in the face of perceived danger). Anxiety is a more
diffused emotional reaction; exists in various forms.
(Some) forms of anxiety disorders:
-Agoraphobia (with panic attacks), generalized
anxiety disorder (GAD), hypochondriasis,
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Slide 5: Agoraphobia: involves fear of being alone in
public places, accompanied by panic attacks (a panic
attack is a period of intense fear and discomfort where
palpitations, heart pounding, sweating, shaking, nausea,
hot flashes, (and many more), may develop abruptly
Agoraphobics stay away from public places from fear
of having panic attacks.
In Greek: agoraphobia meansfear of the marketplace”
VIDEO ON AGORAPHOBIA
-Agoraphobia: avoiding situations that leave
people feeling out of control and vulnerable to
panic attacks (ex. driving)
Ongoing fear for agoraphobics:Will I have a panic
attack? If I do, will I be able to handle it?”
Those with agoraphobia feel safest at home, if they
must go out, they will bring a companion along
Diet (in particular, caffeine) contributes to symptoms.
Caffeine producing transitory, anxiety-like sensations
in already aroused individuals
Slide 7: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD):
excessive worry that leads to significant distress or
impairment in occupational or social functioning but
that is not focused on panic attacks; anxiety that exists
for no reason that people around the individual would
feel is appropriate; feeling anxious without really
understanding why
www.notesolution.com
GAD used to be known as free-floating anxiety (being
anxious without being aware of the source of anxiety)
GAD often overlaps with other anxiety disorders
(comorbidity is high)
VIDEO ON GAD
-Chronic, diffuse, excessive worry
Sufferers often have difficulty falling asleep, many
aches and pains, are excessive drinkers, have a greater
risk of being dependant on tranquilizers and sleeping
pills, women sufferers outnumber men 2:1
Many people with GAD feel they need to go to a
hospital or a doctor, but they dont usually end up
seeing a psychiatrist, maybe just the person in the ER at
the time.
Slide 9: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: pervasive
pattern of intrusive, unwanted thoughts accompanied
by ritualistic behaviours; compulsion makes them do
things that if they didnt do, would make them very
anxious.
Obsession: recurrent involuntary thought or image.
Compulsion: repetitive carrying out of a pointless ritual
(i.e. constantly checking to make sure the stove is off);
repetitive behaviours that they engage in without being
able to control them
VIDEO ON OCD
OCD is characterized by recurring and disturbing
images or thoughts or ideas referred to as obsessions
and/or behaviours that the person feels driven to
perform (compulsions or rituals)
OCD sufferers know that their behaviours are
irrational.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYA02 Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disease Lecture 27 Slide 2: Classifying Mental Disorders There is a wide variety of psychological disorders. Classifying them is a prerequisite to organized diagnosis and treatment. The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) is the most commonly used classification scheme. Slide 3: Simpler Classification: a less technical way of classifying mental disorders is in terms of: Neurosis: excessively irrational negative emotionality without loss of contact with reality; i.e. someone who responds with excessive anger, or anxiety in a situation, preventing them from functioning easily and happily - Anxiety, phobia, obsession, depression Psychosis: severe disturbance of thought and emotion with loss of contact with reality (schizophrenia); their mental space is not driven by what most people would consider to be reality - Hallucination, paranoia, delusion Slide 4: Anxiety: an emotion that is experienced in anticipation of danger. (like fear, but fear is experienced www.notesolution.comin the face of perceived danger). Anxiety is a more diffused emotional reaction; exists in various forms. (Some) forms of anxiety disorders: - Agoraphobia (with panic attacks), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), hypochondriasis, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Slide 5: Agoraphobia: involves fear of being alone in public places, accompanied by panic attacks (a panic attack is a period of intense fear and discomfort where palpitations, heart pounding, sweating, shaking, nausea, hot flashes, (and many more), may develop abruptly Agoraphobics stay away from public places from fear of having panic attacks. In Greek: agoraphobia means fear of the marketplace VIDEO ON AGORAPHOBIA - Agoraphobia: avoiding situations that leave people feeling out of control and vulnerable to panic attacks (ex. driving) Ongoing fear for agoraphobics: Will I have a panic attack? If I do, will I be able to handle it? Those with agoraphobia feel safest at home, if they must go out, they will bring a companion along Diet (in particular, caffeine) contributes to symptoms. Caffeine producing transitory, anxiety-like sensations in already aroused individuals Slide 7: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive worry that leads to significant distress or impairment in occupational or social functioning but that is not focused on panic attacks; anxiety that exists for no reason that people around the individual would feel is appropriate; feeling anxious without really understanding why www.notesolution.com
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