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Lecture

For lectures 27-31 on chapter 17, video notes included, lecture 32 not included

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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PSYA02
Chapter 17 – The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disease
Lecture 27
Slide 2: Classifying Mental Disorders
There is a wide variety of psychological disorders. Classifying them is a prerequisite to
organized diagnosis and treatment.
The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) is the
most commonly used classification scheme.
Slide 3: Simpler Classification: a less technical way of classifying mental disorders is in terms
of: Neurosis: excessively irrational negative emotionality without loss of contact with reality; i.e.
someone who responds with excessive anger, or anxiety in a situation, preventing them from
functioning easily and happily
-Anxiety, phobia, obsession, depression
Psychosis: severe disturbance of thought and emotion with loss of contact with reality
(schizophrenia); their mental space is not driven by what most people would consider to be
reality
-Hallucination, paranoia, delusion
Slide 4: Anxiety: an emotion that is experienced in anticipation of danger. (like fear, but fear is
experienced in the face of perceived danger). Anxiety is a more diffused emotional reaction;
exists in various forms.
(Some) forms of anxiety disorders:
-Agoraphobia (with panic attacks), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), hypochondriasis,
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
www.notesolution.com
Slide 5: Agoraphobia: involves fear of being alone in public places, accompanied by panic
attacks (a panic attack is a period of intense fear and discomfort where palpitations, heart
pounding, sweating, shaking, nausea, hot flashes, (and many more), may develop abruptly
Agoraphobics stay away from public places from fear of having panic attacks.
In Greek: agoraphobia meansfear of the marketplace”
VIDEO ON AGORAPHOBIA
-Agoraphobia: avoiding situations that leave people feeling out of control and vulnerable
to panic attacks (ex. driving)
Ongoing fear for agoraphobics:Will I have a panic attack? If I do, will I be able to handle it?”
Those with agoraphobia feel safest at home, if they must go out, they will bring a companion
along
Diet (in particular, caffeine) contributes to symptoms. Caffeine producing transitory, anxiety-like
sensations in already aroused individuals
Slide 7: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive worry that leads to significant distress
or impairment in occupational or social functioning but that is not focused on panic attacks;
anxiety that exists for no reason that people around the individual would feel is appropriate;
feeling anxious without really understanding why
GAD used to be known as free-floating anxiety (being anxious without being aware of the source
of anxiety)
GAD often overlaps with other anxiety disorders (comorbidity is high)
VIDEO ON GAD
-Chronic, diffuse, excessive worry
Sufferers often have difficulty falling asleep, many aches and pains, are excessive drinkers, have
a greater risk of being dependant on tranquilizers and sleeping pills, women sufferers outnumber
men 2:1
Many people with GAD feel they need to go to a hospital or a doctor, but they dont usually end
up seeing a psychiatrist, maybe just the person in the ER at the time.
www.notesolution.com
Slide 9: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: pervasive pattern of intrusive, unwanted thoughts
accompanied by ritualistic behaviours; compulsion makes them do things that if they didnt do,
would make them very anxious.
Obsession: recurrent involuntary thought or image.
Compulsion: repetitive carrying out of a pointless ritual (i.e. constantly checking to make sure
the stove is off); repetitive behaviours that they engage in without being able to control them
VIDEO ON OCD
OCD is characterized by recurring and disturbing images or thoughts or ideas referred to as
obsessions and/or behaviours that the person feels driven to perform (compulsions or rituals)
OCD sufferers know that their behaviours are irrational.
Serotonin may be out of balance for those with OCD.
Lecture 28
Slide 11: Hypochondriasis: persistent exaggerated fear that one is suffering a physical illness;
excessive fear of being ill.
Hypochondriacs tend to interpret their physical symptoms as indicative of a serious illness (keep
lots of medications on hand); they are very alert to any symptoms/anything they may be feeling,
and have a tendency to always assume the worst. They quickly seek medical attention and expect
the worst. If the tests are negative, they worry that something was overlooked.
VIDEO ON HYPOCHONDRIASIS
Intense anxiety that individual is ill, or even dying; every single symptom sends sufferers to the
doctor/hospital.
Childhood/upbringing may be responsible for hypochondriasis.
Slide 13: Causes of Anxiety Disorders: the causes are complex, and some are more relevant to
some disorders than to others:
-Stressful life (having faced danger, ex. car accident; a learned anxiety, can be very severe)
-Childhood adversity (parental neglect, worry, abuse, a person whose needs were not met
as a child, grew up to be insecure, constant worry about safety, resources, etc.)
-Attachment style (insecure attachment, perhaps child does not develop reliable relation
with parent, secure attachment)
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYA02 Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disease Lecture 27 Slide 2: Classifying Mental Disorders There is a wide variety of psychological disorders. Classifying them is a prerequisite to organized diagnosis and treatment. The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) is the most commonly used classification scheme. Slide 3: Simpler Classification: a less technical way of classifying mental disorders is in terms of: Neurosis: excessively irrational negative emotionality without loss of contact with reality; i.e. someone who responds with excessive anger, or anxiety in a situation, preventing them from functioning easily and happily - Anxiety, phobia, obsession, depression Psychosis: severe disturbance of thought and emotion with loss of contact with reality (schizophrenia); their mental space is not driven by what most people would consider to be reality - Hallucination, paranoia, delusion Slide 4: Anxiety: an emotion that is experienced in anticipation of danger. (like fear, but fear is experienced in the face of perceived danger). Anxiety is a more diffused emotional reaction; exists in various forms. (Some) forms of anxiety disorders: - Agoraphobia (with panic attacks), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), hypochondriasis, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) www.notesolution.comSlide 5: Agoraphobia: involves fear of being alone in public places, accompanied by panic attacks (a panic attack is a period of intense fear and discomfort where palpitations, heart pounding, sweating, shaking, nausea, hot flashes, (and many more), may develop abruptly Agoraphobics stay away from public places from fear of having panic attacks. In Greek: agoraphobia means fear of the marketplace VIDEO ON AGORAPHOBIA - Agoraphobia: avoiding situations that leave people feeling out of control and vulnerable to panic attacks (ex. driving) Ongoing fear for agoraphobics: Will I have a panic attack? If I do, will I be able to handle it? Those with agoraphobia feel safest at home, if they must go out, they will bring a companion along Diet (in particular, caffeine) contributes to symptoms. Caffeine producing transitory, anxiety-like sensations in already aroused individuals Slide 7: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive worry that leads to significant distress or impairment in occupational or social functioning but that is not focused on panic attacks; anxiety that exists for no reason that people around the individual would feel is appropriate; feeling anxious without really understanding why GAD used to be known as free-floating anxiety (being anxious without being aware of the source of anxiety) GAD often overlaps with other anxiety disorders (comorbidity is high) VIDEO ON GAD - Chronic, diffuse, excessive worry Sufferers often have difficulty falling asleep, many aches and pains, are excessive drinkers, have a greater risk of being dependant on tranquilizers and sleeping pills, women sufferers outnumber men 2:1 Many people with GAD feel they need to go to a hospital or a doctor, but they dont usually end up seeing a psychiatrist, maybe just the person in the ER at the time. www.notesolution.com
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