PSYB01H3 Lecture Notes - Program Evaluation, Needs Assessment, Quasi

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Published on 20 Jun 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Chapter 11- Chapter Notes
Single Case, Quasi Experimental and Developmental Research
-Learning Objectives
oDescribe single case experimental designs and discuss reasons to use this design
oDescribe the five types of evaluations involved in program evaluation research
Needs assessment
Program assessment
Process evaluation
Outcome evaluation
Efficiency assessment
oDescribe the one-group posttest-only design
oDescribe the one-group pretest-posttest design and the associated threats to
internal validity that may occur:
History
Maturation
Testing
Instrumental decay
Regression towards mean
oDescribe the nonequivalent control group design and nonequivalent control group
pretest-posttest design, and discuss the advantages of having a control group
oDescribe cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs, including
advantages and disadvantages of each design
oDefine Cohort Effect
Single Case Experimental designs
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-Single Case Experimental designs have traditionally being referred to as single-subject
designs; but now the terms used are single case, and single participant
-Single case design is often used in clinical, counseling, educational, and other applied
settings
-Was designed to see if an experimental manipulation could work on a single research
participant
-In single case design, the subject’s behavior is measured over time during a baseline
control period
oIn Baseline control period, the participant’s control behavior is measured, once
that is done, the manipulation variable is put forth in the experiment
-Reversal Design is used to ensure if the manipulation of the independent variable had an
effect
oThe reversal design takes like the following form:
A (Baseline period) B (Treatment period) A (Baseline period)
The ABA design is goes as: Control group, experimental, control
By observing the control behavior before manipulating and also
after the manipulation, you will be able to understand if there was
an effect
Sometimes the ABA design is extended to ABAB design
This is done to address two problems with the ABA design
oSingle reversal is not extremely powerful evidence for the
effectiveness of the treatment
The observed behavior might have been due to a
random fluctuation in the child’s behaviour
For example a child’s upcoming birthday had an
effect in the experiment
This is less likely to occur if the treatment has been
shown to have an effect two or more times
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oEthics is the second problem
Unlike the ABA design where the experiment ends
with an withdrawal; the ABAB design ends with a
treatment
-Multiple Baseline Designs
oThe effectiveness of baseline design is only when a behavior changes after the
manipulation is introduced
oTo demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment of such change, the behavior
must be observed under multiple circumstances to rule out the possibility that
other events were responsible
oVariation of multiple baseline design
Multiple baseline across subject is when behavior of several subjects is
measured overtime
For each subject the manipulation is introduced at a different point
in time
Introduction of the manipulation was followed by a change in
behavior of each subject
Multiple baseline across behaviours is when several different behaviours
across a single subject are measured overtime
At different times, the same manipulation is applied to each of the
behavior
A reward system applied to reading, grooming, and socialization
behavior
By applying the reward system to each of the behavior at different
times would show the effectiveness if the behavior is manipulated
when being rewarded
Multiple baseline across situation is when same behavior is measured at
different settings like home or at work
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