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Lecture

Chapter notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy

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Chapter 14 - Generalizing Results
1
GENERALIZING TO OTHER POPULATIONS OF RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS
-even though researcher randomly assignment participants to conditions..rarely are they picked fr
the general population
omost available : college student (specifically freshmen and sophomores in intro psychology
course to satisfy a general education requirement)
participants may also be fr particular uni/college, be mostly F or M, certain culture
College Students
-Smart found: college student were studied in over 70% of the articles published btw 1962-64 in the
Journal of Experimental Psychology and Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology; sim result for
80-’85 in a variety
-Problem: such studies use highly restricted population (sop/freshmentioned above)
oThey tend to be very young and possess charac of later adolescence
Sense of self-identity is still developing, soc/pol attitudes still in flux, peer approval
need, unstable peer relationships; also intelligent, high cog skill etc.
People in general not necess have all these characteristics
-Also see unrepresentation in animals---i.e. most animal research relies on white rats (cheap, easy,
lab adaptive)
Volunteers
-many intro classes require students to volunteers
-Volunteers differ from nonvolunteers
oVolunteers tend to be more highly educated, more in need of approval and more social; also
tend to have higher SES
-Also diff kinds of ppl volunteer for diff kinds of experimentsppl drawn to diff studies
oEvidence that the title of study influences who signs up
Gender Considerations
-sometimes researchers use either M or F (or a disprop ratio) due to convenience or which is better
suited for procedure
-thus you may get gender bias (incl confounding gender w/ age or job status and selected response
measures which are gender-stereotyped)
-Need to be aware of gender diff and try incl both!
-Imp to recog the ways both genders differently interpret IV manipulations or questions asked in
questionnaire
Locale
-One locale differs from others: uni, community college, cities, towns, diff geographical regions etc.
Generalization as a Statistical Interaction
-problem of generalization can be thought of as an interaction in a factorial design (ch. 10)
ointeraction occurs when relationship btw vars exists under 1 condition but not another or
when the nature of relationship is diff is one condition than in another (i.e. gender may
influence vars)www.notesolution.com
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Chapter 14 - Generalizing Results
2
-ex. Study with just male and aggression may not be able to be generalized amongst females and
aggression
-for example looking at relationships on crowding and aggression (see fig 14.1 in textbook)
oGraph D seems to describe results for several studies
-Using diff populations imp in avoiding generalization and incl subj type as a variable in the study---
such as age, gender, ethnic group etc…..which can be analysed later to see in there are interaction
effects
In Defense of College Student and Rats
-1. use of particular subject should be backed with good reason (i.e. college students are human,
increasingly diverse and representative as a whole of the society)
-2. Replication of studies provided safeguard against lmtd generalizability (i.e. later applied to
children, adults, other countries etc.); in order to compliment college-based studies
-3. Rats research valuable in applying findings to humans (biologically-based); studying behave,
memory etc.
CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
-even a few years ago, most participants were WHITE US College students
-today- more ethnically diverse (also cause colleges more diverse too)
othus enhancing external validity
-great interest in studying diff cultures too *the diff and similarities
oci.e. female physical attractiveness across cultures…ratings were highly similar across
groups…there were w few cultural differences nevertheless.
-Imp to take broader view on the importance of cultural perspectives
-Importance of culture and self-concept in psychological theoryself collective concept---diff in
cultures
-Also imp to be aware in ways constructs are operationally defined
oi.e. Measure of self-esteem in individualistic culture may be misleading in a collective culture
GENERALIZING TO OTHER EXPERIMENTS
-personal conducting experiment also another source of generalization problems
-in most research only 1 experimenter is used and no attention paid to their personal characteristics
-MAIN GOAL; any influence the experimenter has on subject is kept constant throughout
-Always a possibility that the results are generalizable to only certain types of experimenters
oIMP CHARAC: gender, personality (warm, cold, friendly etc), practice in role (as
experimenter)
-Studies show
oParticipants seem to perform better when tested by an experimenter of the opposite sex
-SOLN:
oUse 1+ experimenters, probably 1 M, 1F
PRETESTS AND GENERALIZATION
-Should there be a pretest? Intuitively, seems like a good idea
-Can make sure groups are equivalent in pre-test andand then see if indiv changed their scores in
posttest (instead of just looking at group means)
-CONSwww.notesolution.com
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