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Lecture 4

PSYB01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Tanning Bed, Statistical Hypothesis Testing, Room Temperature

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Anna Nagy

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PSYC12 LEC 3 Part 2
Research Proposal Outline
- Funding are not limited
- Must be ethical to all the participants
- Talk about the reasoning why you do this research
- Talk about the previous findings and what it leads you to this research
- Measures are reliable, consistent & valid
o MUST look @ literature and see what has been already done
- Creativity is very important
Elements of a Good Hypothesis
- Logical
- Testable
- Refutable
- Positive
- Look at the filed, gap
o The gap would be where we see what should be changed
The researcher would sometimes have said what should be
done in the further
- Looking at contradiction
o Findings are not always consistent
o Refined the issue
- Contradiction
o Might lead to new theory that can be tested
- Always look for literature > see if someone already has done the
research to make sure is valid and construct
Logical Hypothesis
- Founded in theory or developed from past study results
o Premise 1: Academic success is highly valued and respected in
society (at least by parents and teachers).
o Premise 2: Being valued and respected by others contributes to
high self-esteem.
o Conclusion/hypothesis: Higher levels of academic success will be
related to higher levels of self-esteem
Testable Hypothesis
- Should be able to observe and measure all important variables (cannot be
imaginary, hypothetical, or belief based (ex. God))
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Refutable Hypothesis
- Must be able to falsify predictions that stem from hypothesis
- Are the following hypothesis suitable?
o The more sins a person commits the less likely she is going to
o Abortions is morally wrong
o If people could fly, there would be substantially fewer cases of
o The human mind emits through waves that influence other people,
but cannot be measured or recorded in any way
Positive Hypothesis
- Should state that something (usually a relationship between two variables)
exists (premise of hypothesis testing is that we assume it doesn’t exist)
Choose the Positive Hypotheses
- There is no relationship between stress and health
- A negative relationship exists between stress and health
- There is a difference between the language abilities of 4-year-old girls and
4-year-old boys
- The new treatment does not affect anxiety levels
Hypothesis to Predictions
- Hypothesis: “the dark and dreary environment during the winter leads to
- Can you think of two research hypotheses/predictions that might stem
from this general hypothesis?
- Start off by a good question
- Use the literature to help refined ideas, questions, and hypothesis
- Hypothesis: general area of research
- Prediction: more detail, use different tool to help measure and answer the
o Would be within measure - standardize measure, specific measure
- Experiment group: Non-exposure to sun lamp
- Control group: Expose to sun lamp
- Use BECK inventory to measure depression before and after the
- Dependent: depression measure of inventory
- Independent: sun lamp exposure
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- Definitions
o Event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies
o Must have two or more levels or values
o May be quantitative or categorical
- Level
o 0 hr of sun lamp exposure
o 10hr of sun lamp exposure
- Four general categories
o Situational variables
Room temperature
Sun lamp exposure
o Response variables
o Participant or subject variables
Pass experience
Difference within a person
Hours of sleep
Ethnical background
o Mediating variable (Spurious variable)
Factor that explains the result
Mediating variable
- Bullying stress level increased depression
- Factor that explain the relationship between two variables
- Stressor (third variable)
o Bullying affects depression
Operational Definitions of Variables
- Variable is an abstract concept that must be translated into concrete forms
of observation or manipulation
- Defined in terms of procedure used to manipulate or measure behaviour
- Allows for replication
- Help communicate ideas to others
In Class Exercise
- Create two different operational definitions for each of the following
psychological variables:
o Anxiety
Explore factor to do better on exam
Hours of sleep
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