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Lecture 11

PSYB01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Nonprobability Sampling, Interrupted Time Series, Demand Characteristics


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Lecture
11

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Week 11 Lecture Notes Part 02
Chapter 11: Single Case, Quasi-Experiment and
Development Research
Experimental design is ideal for enhancing internal validity
o Experiments may be unethical, so the experimental design may not be
possible
Final exam is multiple choice and short answer
Covers chapter 7-14 and all lecture content
August 10, 2015
PROGRAM EVALUATION
o Need assessment Program theory assessment process
evaluation outcome evaluation efficiency assessment
o In the trad sense, how do you see if an implemented program is
effective?
Break it down into useful components that show you what’s
actually going on
A thorough program evaluation will assess a program at
various time points and will look at diff components that gives
a true picture of what’s going on
Step one: evaluate the needs
Case Study Question Example: Should we allow safe injection sites?
o You can conduct a thorough program evaluation to see if the currently
existing injection sites and beneficial
o Safe injection sites are medical facilities that are staffed by nurses,
addiction counselors, etc.
o At safe injection sites, people can inject their (illicit) drugs safely
(heroine, cocaine, etc.) to be injected into the user by themselves
Special permission required for this violation of the law
May bring in more crime (drug transactions, robberies and
thefts, etc.)
Lots of controversy around this and the theory
o Insite
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-
columbia/story/2011/09/29/bc-insite-supreme-court-ruling-
advancer.html
o Needs assessment
Harm Reduction: IV drug user population, surveys of number
of drug users for potential clients, rate of disease (i.e. HIV,
hepatitis C)
Cost: costs of disease medical care
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People in need of services, counselling, homeless drug users,
referrals for detox
Population that suffers from high rate of infectious disease and
other health issues associated with homelessness and drug use
Data can be obtained through statistical data, surveys, stats
kept by local health care authorities
Would the IV drug users actually use the centers? Is it a need or
a waste of time?
Enforcement wasn’t working arrested drug users would go
back to drugs right after being released) other interventions
being tried weren’t resolving the issue
o Program theory assessment: harm-reduction model
People who are infectious
Pop is vulnerable to overdoses
Wounds at sites of injection
Theory would describe reasons for issue and would prescribe
remedies/programs for these issues
We have to tackle deeply rooted social issues underlying drug
use by reducing harm to drug use
o Process Evaluation
Conducted along the way during the program to see if program
is working
Looks at implementation of the program
Is it reaching your target pop?
Are the staff providing the planned services? Are they
referring people to the addiction services? Are they
providing counselling? Are they educating on how to
inject safely to prevent the transmission of disease? Are
they providing medical care (emergency and
otherwise)? Are they intervening in overdoses and
preventing potential death?
)f your outcomes are bad, it might be because there’s
something wrong with the implementation of the program
(there’s something specific about the program that isn’t
working that can be modified)
Are the staff trained?
Are you providing the services that you said you would?
Is the location of the program good (the
neighbourhood)
o Outcome Evaluation
See if the intervention had an impact on the needs that were
identifies in the needs assessment:
Enhancing health, reducing transmission of diseases,
reducing number of OD deaths, increasing accessibility
to counselling, detox, rehab, anti-addiction programs,
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referrals to social workers to find housing how is the
program addressing these?
May involve more than 1 DV and involve a lot of factors
See which factors predict certain outcomes
o Efficiency assessment was it worth it to run the program?
Assess monetary costs
i.e. HIV aids cost vs. cost of program that reduced HIV
transmission
Through a Blue Lens
o http://www.onf-nfb.gc.ca/eng/collection/film/?id=33864
QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
o One-Group Posttest-Only Design/
One Shot Case Study
Example…
Amount of time until stranger leaves determines
discomfort
What’s wrong with this scenario?
No control group that we can compare to
The control group may have sat further away from the
stranger
Can’t say that )V caused DV because we haven’t
controlled for a number of factors and subject variables
Can’t control for environment factors
o Nonequivalent Control Group Design
Critical evaluation…
Nonprobability sampling volunteers (taking anyone
you can get to participate)
When it’s unethical to assign people to
experimental/control group
You haven’t measured individual factors so you don’t
know if they’re equivalent prior to experiment
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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