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Lecture 6

PSYB01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Simple Random Sample, Nonprobability Sampling, Guttman Scale

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Anna Nagy

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Week 8 Lecture #6 Monday, June 29, 2015
Chapter 6: Observing Behaviour
Non-Experimental Research
Behaviour observed or measured
- useful when we don’t know what’s going on
- good for people who are unique (refugee, ppl advocating for change)
Many different methods used:
-Naturalistic Observation
going out and observe what’s happening in a situation
-Systematic Observation
specific question and observing particular behaviour
-Case Studies
important data
-Archival Research
Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
Qualitative approaches
- not adjusting variable, open ended questions, in a natural setting
- data obtained is descriptive
Describe behavior or findings based on themes that emerge from the data.
- emotions and etc.
Data are nonnumerical and expressed in language and images
Quantitative approaches
- survey but has scale (strongly agree- disagree)
Assign numerical values to responses and measures
-data then subjected to quantitative statistical analyses
Naturalistic Observation
Naturalistic observation is sometimes called field work or field observations.
also called ethnography
Researcher makes observations in a natural setting, over a period of time, using a variety
of techniques to collect information
makes detail notes, videos, need to think about ethnical concerns and validity
Used to describe and understand how people or animals in a social or cultural setting
live, work, and experience
the setting
- Usually qualitative data
- Researcher must interpret what occurred
- Generate hypotheses that help explain the data
- Final report of results organized around a
structure developed by the researcher
find more resources at
find more resources at

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- some video bout a whale and a dog
- dog barking at the whale
- whale following ship and trying to kiss(?) the dog
- followed them all the way to dock
- whale seems to be nonchalant about everything
- weren’t aggressive or fearful to each other
- killer whale capable of attacking dog, but didn’t
- if scientist/ observer we would want to know the distance they were from each other, reason
for their behaviour/interaction
- first period of time of naturalistic obs is spent observing
- observation is heavily influenced by our perception due to past experience, education and
- while making notes in observation make notes of:
1. the space (the physical place (city/ buildings/ car in surrounding/ park), the
1. the actors (the people involved, who are you observing, their age, gender, culture,
2. the activity (what are ppl engaging in, walking round, fidgeting)
3. the objects (umbrellas symbolic meaning), how are ppl dressed, what they’re
4. Acts (the acts that they’re doing, yelling/chanting, violent behaviour)
5. the event (rioting, is it ongoing, purpose)
6. the time (sequence in time, important in going back to notes and for videotaping, mighit
refresh your memory)
7. goal (ppl are trying to accomplish, occupy wall street ) &
8. ``emotions and feelings (were they laughing/ angry)
- make sure you’re not bias and open, let the data itself speak
Naturalistic Observation (con’t)
- leads you into different directions with many themes
Issues in naturalistic observation:
1. Participation
- protestor or nonprotestor, a reporter
- Nonparticipant observer does not become an active part of the setting (outsider)
- Participant observer assumes an active role (insider)
- experiencing the emotion
Problem: Objectivity
Issues in naturalistic observation
2. Concealment
- participants might behave in different way if they knew they were being observed
- can’t use it to study all issue, might not be worthwhile to go and observe behaviour
find more resources at
find more resources at
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