Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Psychology (9,000)
PSYB01H3 (200)
Anna Nagy (100)
Lecture 4

PSYB01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: American Psychologist, Major Depressive Disorder, Artificiality


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Lecture
4

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Week 5 Lecture #4 Monday, June 08, 2015
Lecture 3 Chapter 4: Studying Behaviour
Learning Objectives
Describe the different steps involved in the research process
Define variable and describe the four categories of variables: situational, response,
participant, and mediating variables
Define operational definition of a variable
Describe the different relationships between variables: positive, negative, curvilinear, and
no relationship
Appendix A exam.
Compare and contrast nonexperimental and experimental research methods
Distinguish between an independent variable and a dependent variable
Discuss the three elements for inferring causation: temporal order, covariation of cause
and effect, and elimination of alternative explanations
Discuss necessary & sufficient causes
Discuss the limitations of laboratory experiments and the advantage of using multiple
methods of research
Distinguish between construct validity, internal validity, and external validity
Elements of a Good Hypothesis
Logical
Testable
Refutable
Positive
Logical Hypothesis
Testable Hypotheses
Should be able to observe and measure all important variables
(cannot be imaginary, hypothetical, or belief based (i.e. GOD!)
Refutable Hypothesis
Must be able to falsify predictions that stem from hypothesis
Are the following hypotheses suitable?
The more sins a person commits, the less likely she is going to heaven
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Abortion is morally wrong
If people could fly, there would be substantially fewer cases of depression
The human mind emits thought waves that influence other people, but
cannot be measured or recorded in any way (Gravetter & Forzano, 2009,
p. 28)
Positive Hypothesis
Should state that something (usually a relationship between two variables) exists
(premise of hypothesis testing is that we assume it doesn’t exist)
- Always predict that something DOES exist so you can falsify it.
Choose the positive hypotheses
There is no relationship between stress and health
A negative relationship exists between stress and health
There is a difference between the language abilities of 4 year old girls and 4 year old
boys
The new treatment does not affect anxiety levels
- Make sure your hypothesis is positive.
Hypothesis to Predictions
- HYPOTHESIS: “The dark and dreary environment during the winter leads to depression”
(Gravetter & Forzano, 2009, p. 20)
- Can you think of two research hypotheses/predictions that might stem from this general
hypothesis?
- Dark and dreary definition
-Administer depression inventory
- Use same people for both seasons
- *Low levels of VitD. = mood impacted
Variables
Definition:
Event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies
Must have two or more levels or values
May be quantitative or categorical
- Qualitative gender (ex. Transgender)
- Categorical different treatment options.
- Quantitative specific doses of meds
Four General Categories
Situational variables
ex. Stressful/neutral environment. Memory performance measured via different
factors.
Response variables
- the score on a questionnaire, level of symptomology
Participant or subject variables
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

age, culture, factors about participants that affect results
Mediating variables
(Spurious variable)
- 5. Moderating variable changes the direction of a relationship. Found in interactions.
Interactions; an affect that only occurs under certain conditions.
Mediating Variable
bullying stress levels increased depression
- A psychological variable that provides a mechanism or an explanation for an observed
relationship
Operational Definitions of Variables
Variable is an abstract concept that must be translated into concrete forms of observation
or manipulation
Defined in terms of procedure used to manipulate or measure behaviour
Allows for replication
Help communicate ideas to others
- Operational definition the procedure or process that allows the replication
*you don’t need to reinvent operational definitions
In Class Exercise
Create two different operational definitions for each of the following psychological
variables:
? What does it mean to you, and how can you operationalize it?
1. Anxiety
- Heightened sense of worry or fear
- High levels of stress
- Worry is out of proportion with the situation
- Feeling of uncertainty
2. Frustration
- inability to complete a task
3. Sense of direction
4. Memory
Four Types of Relationships Between Variables
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version