Studied the identification of emotions from facial expressions across cultures. He started with 6 basic expressions (maybe 7 now) that, no matter which culture saw them, all people could identify. No matter what level of education or association with other cultures: happiness, surprise, anger, fear, disgust, sadness, contempt is the new number 7. Facial expressions as universal, instead of socially learned. The facial expressions are seen as the exact same emotion, across cultures. Coding based on appearance of facial areas during emotions. Conceptual definition = provides the meaning of an abstract term. Operational definition = indicates how the concept is coded, measured, or quantified. Determine causality if you can show causality, you have an explanation. Causality requires three kinds of evidence (cook & campbell, 1979): If a causes b then a has to precede b in order to show this. This is useful for drug trials, in order to find the optimal dosage.