Textbook/Lecture SlidesChapter 7: Surveys2
ungodly, or dangerous.
Negative Wording: Avoid phrasing questions with negatives.
•Social desirability, threatening questions: people generally have a desire to present a
“did you steal as a child?” vs “most people haven stolen something when they were
children. Did you ever steal as a child?”
1. The causal Technique: do you mind if I ask you if you have ever murdered...?
2. The numbered card technique: Would you read the number on the card that
corresponds to what happened to your wife? (1.natural death, 2.I killed her, 3.other)
3. The kinsey technique: emphasizes the continuity of the gradations between always
and never murdered wives / husbands.
•Yea-saying and Nay-saying: the respondent might employ a response set to agree or
disagree with all the questions ? which means that the respondent may just be agreeing
with w/e you say. (Thus ask questions with both positive and negative influences)
•QUAID (Question Understanding Aid) an online analysis of question wording.
RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS
Closed- Versus Open-Ended Questions
•Close-ended: a limited number of response alternatives are given (multiple choice).
•Open-ended: respondents are free to answer in any way they like (short answer).
•Closed-ended question is a more structured approach. They're used when dimensions of
the variables are well defined.
•Open-ended questions are useful when we need to know what people are thinking about
and how they naturally view the world.
•Minimize open-ended questions because they are time consuming, generate inconsistent
responses, left blank.
Number of Response Alternatives
•Simplest scale presents people with 5 or 7 response alternatives with the endpoints on the
scale labeled to define the extremes.
Graphic Rating Scale
•Requires a mark along a continuous 100-mm line that is anchored with descriptions at
•A ruler is then placed on the line to obtain the score on a scale that ranges from 0-100.
Semantic Differential Scale
•Measure of the meaning of concepts (persons, objects, behaviors, ideas) on a series of
bipolar adjectives using 7-point scales.
•The concepts are rated along three basic dimensions: 1) evaluation (adjectives such as
good-bad, wise-foolish, kind-cruel); 2) activity (active-passive, slow-fast, excitable-calm);
3) potency (weak-strong, hard-soft, large-small).
Nonverbal Scale for Children